world war ii and the cold war 1937 1949 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
World War II and the Cold War 1937 - 1949 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
World War II and the Cold War 1937 - 1949

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 33
Download Presentation

World War II and the Cold War 1937 - 1949 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

osman
165 Views
Download Presentation

World War II and the Cold War 1937 - 1949

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 20 World War II and the Cold War 1937 - 1949

  2. World War II and the Cold WarPortents of Disaster • Economists predict disaster soon after signing of Versailles Treaty • Disruptions of food & coal supply • Weight of reparation payments • Poet William Butler Yeats points to cultural sickness of Europe • Onset of Depression ten years after treaty

  3. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Italy • Mussolini & followers unsuccessfully seek electoral wins amidst post-war instability • Fascist thugs then attack a variety of nationalist enemies, declare a national emergency and “March on Rome” • Mussolini wins 1924 election with fraud • Support from those who like society without turmoil

  4. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Germany • Hitler was virulent racist before WWI • Adopted Mussolini model for party after war • Weimar government popular with no one • France reinvades after 1923 reparations default • Hitler attempts putsch to overthrow government • Failure leads to jail and manifesto Mein Kampf • Blames Jews for German misery

  5. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Germany [cont.] • Nazi party gains votes, 1928-32 • Hitler and Nazis asked to join ruling coalition in 1933 • Elitist parties believed they could control Hitler • Reichstag building burns but new elections leave Nazis short of a majority • Declares national emergency and turns thugs loose to silence opponents and wins desired majority

  6. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Germany [cont.] • Creation of totalitarian state includes • propaganda and paramilitary organizations • Racial “science” and worship of pre-Christian gods • Citizens were intimidated but also attracted to territorial expansion & return of German glory • Germany and Italy proclaim “axis” in 1936

  7. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Japan • Japan was one of five great powers at Versailles • Gross national income grew 40% 1914-1918 • Advanced rapidly by leap-frogging technology • Successfully maintained “dual economy” • Food riots at end of war show vulnerability • “Need” colonies for numerous resources • Zaibatsu control economy by 1920s

  8. Contest of the “Isms”: Fascism & Communism • Japan [cont.] • Path to democracy undermined by political power of zaibatsu • Constitution requires ministries of war and navy to be in hands of the military • Shinto emphasized divinity of emperor and importance of samurai • Military seeks to protect resource-poor nation

  9. The Descent Toward War • 1920s a time of peace (?) • League of Nations serves as an annual forum • Negotiated limits on navies at Washington • Locarno modifies German debt payments • Pact of Paris (1928) outlaws war • Great Depression and relative ability of communist and fascist nations to survive while democracies struggle

  10. The Descent Toward War • Steps toward war in the 1930s • Japanese seize Manchuria (1931) • Establish Manchuria as puppet state (1932) • Opposition at home silenced violently • Italy invades Ethiopia (1935) • League of Nations does not respond • Civil War in Spain (1936) • Japan invades China proper (1937)

  11. The Descent Toward War • Steps toward war in the 1930s [cont.] • Germany rises under Hitler • Withdraws from League of Nations (1933) • Saar region forced into pro-German stance (1935) • Rearming of Germany begins (1935) • Militarization of Rhineland (1936) • Formal seizure of Austria (1938) • Takeover of Czechoslovakia (1938) • Invasion of Poland (1939)

  12. The Descent Toward War • The Early Cost of War Technology • National budgets reflect militarization of the 1930s • Germany, Japan and USSR spend about 1/4 of total national income on defense • 1938 70% of the Japanese national budget goes to the military • Aircraft production skyrockets

  13. World War II • The War in Europe, 1939-45 • “Phony War” to Spring, 1940--then blitzkieg of Germans into France • French fall followed by aerial assault on Britain • USSR-German non-aggression pact ended in 1941 with broad assault into Russia • Germany directs attack to oil fields, 1942 • US neutral but implements Lend-Lease plan

  14. World War II • The War in the Pacific, 1937-42 • Severity of war seen in Rape of Nanjing & the use of scorched earth tactics by Russia & China • Tripartite Pact forms “Axis Powers” (1940) • US stays neutral but helpful until December 7th

  15. World War II • The War in the Pacific, 1937-42 [cont.] • Churchill: Entry of US “seals” Axis fate • Japanese spread rapidly after Pearl Harbor • Japanese hopes fade--colonies can’t produce enough for Japan to prosper

  16. World War II • Turning the tide, 1942-5 • Allied counter-offensive begins in 1942 • “2nd Front” for Russia deferred by West • Role of “underground” symbolic not decisive • Bombing of German cities begins (1943) • Dresden hardest hit--necessity of attack debated • Allied invasion of Sicily (1943) • 2nd front opened on D-Day, June 6, 1944

  17. World War II • War in Asia & the Pacific, 1942-5 • 1st naval victory in Pacific--Midway Island • Fire bombings of Japan begin (March, 1944) • Atomic bombs end war amid controversy about necessity of their use • 3 million Japanese die in the war • 1/4 of national assets were destroyed • Industrial production 10% of pre-war levels

  18. World War II • Assessing the Results of War • “Total War” meant 50 million dead including 30 million civilians • Japanese model taught Asian colonies that resistance was not futile • Technology in the War • Victory tied to ability of victors to produce more goods in their factories

  19. World War II • Women and the War • Mobilization of women in World War II varied by country • Hitler & Mussolini offered women “emancipation from emancipation” • “Rose the Riveter” symbol of women workers in US • Return of soldiers brought pressure on women to give up their factory jobs • Laid groundwork for “new feminism”

  20. World War II • Horrors of War • Holocaust and atomic warfare • Genocide built on anti-Semitism to seek obliteration of a people • Atomic bomb was a new, higher level of destructive power in world history • Necessity of dropping the bombs remains controversial today. • Racist? • Saved lives?

  21. The Image of Humanity • World War challenged idea of West as region of progress through rationalism • Gandhi • Freud • Picasso • Eliot • Wiesel • Japanese Peace Memorials

  22. United Nations, Postwar Recovery & Origins of Cold War • The United Nations • Goal: “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war” • General assembly gives every nation a voice • Security Council can dispatch peace keepers • Other organizations provide variety of humanitarian services • Founded 1945 by 50 countries

  23. United Nations, Postwar Recovery & Origins of Cold War • Resettlement • Millions of individuals, displaced by war, had to be returned to their home nations • Surrendered/captured soldiers were far from home • Civilians had followed armies, settled new lands or fled in the face of war • US developed GI Bill of Rights to ease return of soldiers to civilian life and to reward them for their service

  24. United Nations, Postwar Recovery & Origins of Cold War • Political Reconstruction: Japan & Germany • Japan • Emperor remains power but no longer sacred • Colonial empire was dissolved • Land redistribution in Japan • Zaibatsu were dissolved • Promotion of worker rights • Restructured the educational system • Economic recovery aided by Korean War

  25. United Nations, Postwar Recovery & Origins of Cold War • Political Reconstruction: Japan & Germany • Germany • Divided into four regions of administration • Russian occupation harsher than that of others • Major war criminals tried at Nuremberg • Democracy promoted in western sectors • Berlin blockade marked opening of the Cold War

  26. United Nations, Postwar Recovery & Origins of Cold War • Economic Reconstruction & the Cold War • Despite devastation, some factories and much production knowledge remain intact • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan • Western foreign policy goal of containment • Fear on both sides leads to NATO and other economic & defensive alliances

  27. Entering the Second Half of the 20th Century • World attracted to FDR idea of the Four Freedoms and the Atlantic Charter • Racism and imperialism a troubling legacy of Europe • Creation of United Nations offered hope

  28. Post-war Europe. Western and eastern bloc competition, following their alliance in crushing Nazi Germany, crystallized in the Cold War. The Soviet Union annexed territories in the Baltic states and eastern Poland and set up a string of puppet communist states later known as the Warsaw Pact alliance, from East Germany to Bulgaria. The Western Allies formed the countervailing NATO alliance. The stalemate continued for forty years.