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Chapter 11. Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood PowerPoints developed by Nicholas Greco IV, College of Lake County, Grayslake, IL. Emerging Adulthood. Emerging adulthood -- transition from adolescence to adulthood 18–25 years of age

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

PowerPoints developed by Nicholas Greco IV,

College of Lake County, Grayslake, IL

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

emerging adulthood
Emerging Adulthood
  • Emerging adulthood -- transition from adolescence to adulthood
    • 18–25 years of age
  • Five key features characterize emerging adulthood:
    • Identity exploration, especially in love and work
    • Instability
    • Self-focused
    • Feeling in-between
    • The age of possibilities when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

markers of becoming an adult
Markers of Becoming an Adult
  • Most widely recognized marker: holding a permanent, full-time job
  • Economic independence is often a long process
  • Taking responsibility for oneself
  • Developing emotional control

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

from high school to college
From High School to College
  • Replays the top-dog phenomenon of transferring from the oldest/most powerful group of students to the youngest/least powerful
  • It involves movement to a larger, more impersonal school structure
  • Includes interaction with peers from more diverse geographical and ethnic backgrounds
  • Has an increased focus on achievement and its assessment

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

physical performance and development
Physical Performance and Development
  • Most of us reach our peak physical performance before the age of 30, often between the ages of 19 and 26
  • During this age period we also begin to decline in physical performance
  • Signs of decline around age 30
    • Sagging chins and protruding abdomens
    • Lessening of physical abilities
    • Sensory systems show little change in early adulthood

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

health
Health
  • Emerging adults have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescents
  • Few chronic health problems
  • Fewer colds and respiratory problems than when they were children
  • Few stop to think about how their personal lifestyles will affect their health later

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

obesity
Obesity  
  • Obesity -- having a body mass index of 30 or more
  • Obesity is linked to increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
  • Overweight and obesity are also associated with mental health problems

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dieting and exercise
Dieting and Exercise
  • Dieting has become an obsession with many Americans
  • Few are successful in keeping weight off long-term
  • The most effective programs include exercise
  • Aerobic exercise -- sustained exercise that stimulates heart and lung activity

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

substance abuse
Substance Abuse
  • By mid-twenties, many young adults have reduced their use of alcohol and drugs
  • Binge drinking
    • more common among college men than women
    • problems include missing classes, physical injuries, troubles with police, having unprotected sex
  • Pregaming

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

substance abuse1
Substance Abuse
  • By mid-twenties, many young adults have reduced their use of alcohol and drugs
  • Binge drinking
    • more common among college men than women
    • problems include missing classes, physical injuries, troubles with police, having unprotected sex
  • Pregaming

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

binge drinking in the adolescence early childhood transition
Binge Drinking in the Adolescence – Early Childhood Transition
  • INSERT FIGURE 11.3 HERE

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sexual activity in emerging adulthood
Sexual Activity in Emerging Adulthood
  • Emerging adulthood is a time when most individuals are “both sexually active and unmarried”
  • Males have more casual sexual partners
  • Casual sex is more common in emerging adulthood than in young adulthood

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

heterosexual attitudes and behavior
Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior
  • Americans tend to fall into three categories:
    • One-third have sex twice a week or more
    • One-third a few times a month
    • One-third a few times a year or not at all
  • Married and cohabiting couples have sex more often
  • Most Americans do not engage in kinky sexual acts
  • Adultery is the exception not the rule
  • Men think about sex more than women do

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sources of sexual orientation
Sources of Sexual Orientation
  • Sexual orientation is likely a continuum from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same-sex relations
  • An individual’s sexual orientation—same-sex, heterosexual, or bisexual—is determined by a combination of genetic, hormonal, cognitive, and environmental factors

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

attitudes and behavior of lesbians and gay males
Attitudes and Behavior of Lesbians and Gay Males
  • Many gender differences that appear in heterosexual relationships occur in same-sex relationships
  • Brown believes that lesbians and gay males
    • Develop a bicultural identity to create new ways of defining themselves
    • Adapt best when they don’t define themselves in polarities

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sexually transmitted infections
Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) -- diseases that are primarily contracted through intercourse and/or oral-genital and anal-genital sex
  • Most prevalent STIs
    • bacterial infections -- gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia
    • viruses -- genital herpes, genital warts, and HIV, which can lead to AIDS

(National Center for Health Statistics, 2010)

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

human immunodeficiency virus hiv
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Has changed sexual behavior and has created significant public fear
  • HIV -- a sexually transmitted infection that destroys the body’s immune system
  • The virus breaks down and overpowers the immune system, which leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • For an individual sick with AIDS, a common cold can be life-threatening

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

protecting yourself from stis
Protecting Yourself from STIs
  • Strategies for protecting against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections include:
    • Know your risk status as well as your partner’s
    • Obtain medical examinations
    • Have protected, not unprotected, sex
    • Avoid having sex with multiple partners

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

forcible sexual behavior and sexual harassment
Forcible Sexual Behavior and Sexual Harassment
  • Sex often involves the exercise of power
  • Rape -- forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent
  • Male rapists share the following characteristics:
    • aggression enhances their sense of power or masculinity
    • they are angry at women in general
    • they want to hurt and humiliate their victims

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

rape victims
Rape Victims
  • Rape is a traumatic experience
  • Victims initially feel shock and numbness and often are acutely disorganized
  • As victims strive to get their lives back to normal, they may experience depression, fear, anxiety, and increased substance use and/or sexual dysfunctions for months or years

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

date rape
Date Rape
  • Date or acquaintance rape -- coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted
    • Two-thirds of college freshman women report having been date-raped or experienced attempted date rape at least once
    • Two-thirds of college men admit that they fondle women against their will
      • Half admit to forcing sexual activity

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sexual harassment
Sexual Harassment
  • Sexual harassment -- manifestation of power of one person over another
    • ranges from inappropriate sexual remarks and physical contact to blatant propositions and sexual assaults
    • may result in psychological consequences for the victim
  • Prevention -- to provide equal opportunities to develop a career and obtain education in a climate free of sexual harassment

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cognitive stages
Cognitive Stages
  • Piaget concluded adolescents and adults think qualitatively in the same way  
    • formal operational thought is the final stage in cognitive development; characterizes adults as well as adolescents
  • Piaget believed that adults increased their knowledge in a specific area
  • Many adults do not think in formal operational ways at all

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

realistic and pragmatic thinking
Realistic and Pragmatic Thinking
  • As young adults face the constraints of reality, which work promotes, their idealism decreases
  • Schaie proposed that in early adulthood individuals often switch from acquiring knowledge to applying knowledge as they pursue success in their work

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

reflective and relativistic thinking
Reflective and Relativistic Thinking
  • In Perry’s view, the absolutist, dualistic thinking of adolescence gives way to the reflective, relativistic thinking of adulthood
  • Others believe that reflective thinking is an important indicator of cognitive change in young adults

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

postformal thought
Postformal Thought
  • Postformal thought -- understanding that the correct answer to a problem requires reflective thinking and can vary situationally
    • includes the belief that solutions to problems need to be realistic and that emotion and subjective factors can influence thinking

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

creativity
Creativity
  • Early adulthood is a time of great creativity for some people
  • Although a decline in creativity is often found in the fifties and later, the decline is not as great as commonly thought
  • There is extensive individual variation in the lifetime output of creative individuals

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

stimulating adults creativity
Stimulating Adults’ Creativity
  • Steps toward a more creative life include cultivating your curiosity and interest
    • Try to be surprised by something every day
    • Try to surprise at least one person every day
    • Each day write what surprised you and how you surprised others; keep a journal
    • When something sparks your interest, follow it
    • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal
    • Spend time in settings that stimulate your creativity

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

careers and work
Careers and Work
  • Important themes of early adulthood: earning a living, choosing an occupation, establishing a career, and developing in a career
    • by mid-twenties, many individuals have completed their education or training and started to enter a full-time occupation
    • through the remainder of early adulthood, individuals often seek to establish their emerging career in a particular field and improve their financial standing

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the impact of work
The Impact of Work
  • Work defines people in fundamental ways
    • Influences financial standing, housing, the way they spend their time, where they live, their friendships, and their health
    • Work creates a structure and rhythm to life that is often missed when individuals do not work for an extended period
    • Most individuals spend one-third of their lives at work

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

unemployment
Unemployment
  • Unemployment produces stress regardless of whether the job loss is temporary, cyclical, or permanent
  • Stress comes not only from a loss of income and the resulting financial hardships but also from decreased self-esteem

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dual career couples
Dual-Career Couples
  • Dual-career couples may have particular problems finding a balance between work and the rest of life
    • division of responsibility for work and family has changed
      • husbands are taking increased responsibility and showing greater interest in families and parenting
      • women are taking increased responsibility for breadwinning

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

diversity in the workplace
Diversity in the Workplace
  • Ethnic and gender diversity is increasing in the workplace in nearly every developed country and in many professions
    • Latinos are projected to constitute a larger percentage of the labor force than African Americans by 2018
    • Glass ceiling -- invisible barrier to career advancement preventing women and ethnic minorities from holding managerial or executive jobs

(c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.