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Chapter 11. Intergroup Development Interventions. Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2). Identify problems of intergroup conflict and suboptimization. Experience negative effects of competition on organization effectiveness. Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2).

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Intergroup Development Interventions

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 1 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2)
  • Identify problems of intergroup conflict and suboptimization.
  • Experience negative effects of competition on organization effectiveness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 2 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2)
  • Observe and develop strategies for collaborative intergroup relations.
  • Diagnose causes of cooperative versus competitive group relations.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

power to the people who make the hogs part 1 of 3
Power to the People Who Make the Hogs (part 1 of 3)

HD’s Kansas City plant empowers teams to:

  • Make their schedules and work rules.
  • Train new workers and evaluate workers.
  • Manage plant’s operating budget.
  • Approve plant strategies.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

power to the people who make the hogs part 2 of 3
Power to the People Who Make the Hogs (part 2 of 3)

Plant’s structure centers around employees.

Work teams of 8 to15 members.

Group sends member to operating group.

Four operating groups oversee its division.

Operating group elects representative to Plant Leadership Group.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

power to the people who make the hogs part 3 of 3
Power to the People Who Make the Hogs (part 3 of 3)

The plant is open and does not have walls for offices.

Productions workers receive financial rewards based on the performance of the plant.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

changing relationships in today s organizations
Changing Relationships in Today’s Organizations

Managers concentrate efforts on shared responsibilities among work teams.

Organizations create situations of team interdependence.

OD interventions aim at developing effective working methods between teams.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

collaboration and conflict
Collaboration and Conflict

Organizations need cooperation to be effective.

Differences in objectives and values between groups.

Conflict is inevitable between groups.

Dysfunctional conflict reduced through intergroup interventions.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world prototype for daimlerchrysler part 1 of 3
Our Changing World: Prototype for DaimlerChrysler(part 1 of 3)

Daimler-Benz AG and Chrysler Corp. to form DaimlerChrysler has entailed challenges.

Indications of a financial flop.

The 2 have different skills and specialties.

Instead of collaborating, Mercedes and Chrysler groups often compete.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world part 2 of 3
Our Changing World (part 2 of 3)

M-Class plant in Alabama provides prototype.

Old rules on how to manage thrown out.

Plant uses open style offices.

Gain sharing used in incentive program.

Dress for all is casual.

All eat in one cafeteria.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world part 3 of 3
Our Changing World (part 3 of 3)

Plant’s design helped establish culture of teamwork and open communication.

Each team has a leader.

Team member can do work of other members.

A team at a station can do work of stations before and behind them.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

intergroup operating problems
Intergroup Operating Problems

Group conflict depends on:

  • How incompatible the goals are.
  • Extent to which resources are scarce and shared.
  • Degree of interdependence of task activities.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

figure 11 1 factors involved in conflict
Figure 11.1Factors Involved in Conflict

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

suboptimization
Suboptimization

Suboptimization occurs when group optimizes its own subgoals but loses sight of larger organizational goals.

Intergroup competition involves groups with conflicting purposes or objectives.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

role conflict and role ambiguity
Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity

Role conflict occurs when individual belongs to 2 or more groups whose goals are in conflict.

Role ambiguity exists when individual of group not clear about his/her functions and goals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

cooperation versus competition part 1 of 2
Cooperation Versus Competition (part 1 of 2)

Mixed research results on competition and cooperation among groups.

Members of competitive groups have more self-esteem for their groups.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

cooperation versus competition part 2 of 2
Cooperation Versus Competition (part 2 of 2)

Groups competing with one another more highly oriented toward accomplishing task, but no evidence of increased productivity.

Cooperation promotes productivity between groups when task is complicated and requires coordination.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice general mills looks to extreme teams part 1 of 2
OD in Practice: General Mills Looks to Extreme Teams (part 1 of 2)

General Mills (GM) improved teams by looking for examples outside company.

GM looks at teams that dissect their operations, analyze them, change them, and put them back together.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 2 of 2
OD in Practice (part 2 of 2)

Examination of NASCAR pit crews helped production operations.

Cross-team cooperation examined between SWAT teams.

GM replaced separate performance goals for engineering, purchasing, and production with single set of goals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

managing conflict
Managing Conflict

Organizational conflict does not need to be eliminated but instead managed.

Diagnosing conflict involves learning basic conflict styles used in dealing with conflict:

  • Desire to satisfy self.
  • Desire to satisfy others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

figure 11 2 conflict styles
Figure 11.2Conflict Styles

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

five styles of cooperative versus assertive behavior part 1 of 2
Five Styles of Cooperative Versus Assertive Behavior: (part 1 of 2)
  • Avoiding - low concern for self and others.
  • Obliging - low concern for self, high concern for others.
  • Dominating - high concern for self, low concern for others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

five styles of cooperative versus assertive behavior part 2 of 2
Five Styles of Cooperative Versus Assertive Behavior: (part 2 of 2)
  • Compromising - moderate concern for self and others.
  • Integrating - high concern for self and others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

techniques to deal with intergroup problems
Techniques to Deal with Intergroup Problems

Deal with conflicts openly to manage tensions.

OD techniques include:

  • Third-party consultation.
  • Organization mirror.
  • Intergroup team building.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

third party consultation
Third-Party Consultation

Uses third party, usually outside practitioner, to help open communications, level power, and confront problems between groups.

Third party provides diagnostic insight and is source of emotional support and skills.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

organization mirror
Organization Mirror

Gives feedback to teams on how other elements of organization view them.

Units meet together to process data with objective of identifying problems and formulating solutions.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

intergroup team building part 1 of 2
Intergroup Team Building (part 1 of 2)

Key members work on issues of interface.

Meeting usually involves following 5 steps:

Step 1. Working separately, the two work groups make three lists:

  • How we see ourselves.
  • How we think other group sees us.
  • How we see other group.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

intergroup team building part 2 of 2
Intergroup Team Building (part 2 of 2)

Step 2. Meeting with other group, person from each group presents their lists.

Step 3. Groups meet separately to discuss.

Step 4. Subgroups formed by mixing members of two groups. Develop action plans.

Step 5. A follow-up evaluation meeting held.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

table 11 1 sample intergroup meeting listing
Table 11.1Sample Intergroup Meeting Listing

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

key words and concepts
Key Words and Concepts
  • Avoiding Style - manages conflict by withdrawing.
  • Boundaryless - a GE term that refers to reducing conflict between divisions and departments.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide31
Compromising style - manages conflict by seeking compromise between parties.
  • Confrontation - parties directly engage each other and focus on conflict.
  • Dominating style - manages conflict by attaining personal objectives and ignoring needs of others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide32
Integrating style - conflict style where there is high concern for self and others.
  • Interdependence - performance of one group contingent upon another group.
  • Interfaces - meeting point between groups.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide33
Intergroup competition - emerges when group pursues one goal while directly opposing values that exist in another group.
  • Intergroup interventions - increase cooperation among organization subsystems.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide34
Intergroup team building - key members of conflicting groups meet to work on issues of interface.
  • Meta goals - superordinate organization goals.
  • Obliging style - manages conflict by showing concern for people satisfactions and smoothing over conflicts.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide35
Open loop - elements of organization operating without feedback.
  • Organization mirror - gives work units feedback on how other elements of organization view them.
  • Role ambiguity - members of group not clear about their functions and goals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide36
Suboptimization - group optimizes own goals but loses sight of larger organization goals.
  • Team interdependence - performance of one group contingent upon another group.
  • Third-party interventions - increases communication and intergroup problem solving using outside practitioner.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

preparations for next chapter
Preparations for Next Chapter
  • Read Chapter 12.
  • Complete Step 1 of OD Skills Simulation 12.1.
  • Complete Step 1 of OD Skills Simulation 12.2.
  • Read and analyze Case: Western Utilities Company.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition