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LEARNING THEORIES BEHAVIORISM, COGNITIVISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM
Background Information • Learning theories allow teachers to better understand the process of learning. • Together with the use of technology, learn theories have made a significant impact in the classroom. • There are many learning paradigms, however, behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivismwill be the focus for this lesson.
Behaviorism • The theory originates from the works of Ivan Pavlov’s, classical conditioning, and B. F. Skinner’s, operant conditioning. • Classical Conditioning is when an unconditioned stimulus and response is manipulated with a conditioned stimulus to create a conditioned response. • Operant Conditioning is a controlled response with a reward/ punishment system according to the behavior. • The learner needs reinforcements to keep interest. • Stimuli are effective in controlling behavior. • As a result, the behaviors can be measured to record learning success.
Cognitivism • Information Processing looks at how information is retrieved and stored. • This theory focuses on how to store and retrieve information. • Learning is attained through rehearsal and consistent use of the information. • Retention strategies such as breaking down information and comparing the information to long term storage are great techniques.
Constructivism • Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner constructs knowledge based on their past experiences. • The teacher only acts as a facilitator who encourages students to explore within a given framework. Learners may collaborate with others to organize their ideas and learn from each other to construct their own knowledge.
Web Resources • Behavioral Learning Theory • http://suedstudent.syr.edu/~ebarrett/ide621/behavior.htm • Cognitivism Learning Theory • http://web.syr.edu/~walker/COGNITIVISMTHEORIES.htm • Constructivism Learning Theory • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theories