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Learning Theories. Created By: Lauren Perry Dana Plater Brittany Thorne. Emotional Intelligence Theory Multiple Intelligences Theory Social Development Theory Integrating Technology Examples. Index.
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Learning Theories Created By: Lauren Perry Dana Plater Brittany Thorne
Emotional Intelligence Theory • Multiple Intelligences Theory • Social Development Theory • Integrating Technology Examples Index
The concept of emotional intelligence was originally introduced by psychologists Howard Gardner, John Mayer and Peter Salovey in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is closely related to emotional intelligence. • In 1995, Daniel Goleman, authored a book entitled Emotional Intelligence, which contributed to the theory becoming popular. • Emotional intelligence “refers to how you handle your own feelings, how well you empathize and get along with other people”(Goleman, 2007). Emotional IntelligenceTheory
Strengths Emotional Intelligence Theory • Emotional intelligence is an important concept that has considerable links to the success of learning to read and developing language arts skills, as it relates to brain-based research. • Goleman states, “Now the case can be made scientifically: helping children improve their self-awareness and confidence, manage their disturbing emotions and impulses, and increase their empathy pays off not just in improved behavior but in measurable academic achievement” (2005). • High emotional intelligence is directly linked to high self-esteem. The high self-esteem leads to high motivations. With all of these elements in the equation, the result is most likely to be a successful learner. Weaknesses Emotional intelligence can not be learned quickly, it must be developed over a period of time. Many professionals dismiss emotional intelligence as a management concept, not a learning theory. Impulses may take over at times, and people are unable to use their emotional intelligence.
Many teaching strategies that are implemented to encourage an emotionally intelligent class are also use in constructivist instruction. Peer-assisted learning and cooperative learning are two of those strategies. • Emotional Intelligence requires students to accept others, develop friendships, and how to develop a caring attitude. If the classmates are not kind to each other, the student’s motivation to learn will be non-existent. Constructivist instruction also requires motivation. • Using online sources to communicate with your students (such as blackboard, email, and facebook) is one way to integrate technology into emotional intelligence. Emotional Intelligence Theory and Constructivist Instruction
Developed by Howard Garner in 1983 • Garner believes that there are nine ways that people understand and perceive the world: • Linguistic (Verbal)- The ability to use words and language • Logical (Mathematical)- The capacity for inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning, as well as the use of numbers and the recognition of abstract patterns • Spatial (Verbal)- The ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions, and to create internal images and pictures • Kinesthetic (Body)- The ability to use the body in a controlled physical way • Musical (Rhythmic)- The ability to recognize tonal patterns and sounds, as well as a sensitivity to rhythms and beats • Interpersonal- The ability to create personal relationships and engage in person-to-person communication • Intrapersonal- The ability to understand one’s own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self-reflection • Naturalistic- The ability to understand, recognize and categorize items in nature • Existential- Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal • Gardner believes that all humans possess all of these intelligences. • Gardner also believes that everyone has different profiles of intelligences; no two individuals, not even identical twins or clones, have exactly the same amalgam of profiles, with the same strengths and weaknesses. Multiple Intelligences Theory
Strengths Multiple Intelligences Theory • Allows teachers to identify how their students best learn (hearing it, seeing it, singing it, etc.) • Gives teachers an idea of what their students need in order to learn (whether they need books, manipulatives, theater, clubs, etc.) Weaknesses There is critique that Multiple Intelligences Theory can not be justified or explained. Students can get imprisoned in perceived intelligences which can limit their ideas about what they are capable of learning.
Both theories believe that students learn best in their own ways • One form of teaching will not reach all students. • Technology can be integrated into multiple intelligences by having the students use digital stories and/or audiobooks. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Constructivist Instruction
Developed by Lev Vygotsky(1896-1934). • Three main themes of the Social Development Theory are: • Social interaction is a key role in the process of cognitive development. Vygotsky stated: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978). • The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): the distance between a students’ ability to complete a task with guidance and their ability to complete the task independently. • The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO): a person who has a better understanding of or a higher ability level than the learner. The MKO is often a parent, teacher, coach, or older adult. Social Development Theory
Strengths Social Development Theory • “Focuses on using hands-on experiences which allows students to actively participate in the learning process” • “Provides teachers with a general idea of the capacity at which their students are able to learn and what is necessary to maximize their learn” • “Because this theory does promote hands-on activities and stresses the importance of the learning environment, different types of learners will be able to explore information on their own and make connections to information they previously learned. This allows each individual student to learn the information in a way that is more meaningful and understandable.” Weaknesses “Many critics believe that all children are different and that they do not necessary learn at the same pace and consistency that his theory suggests. Therefore, many people feel that the ages assigned to each stage are inaccurate and cannot always be applied in the sense that Piaget intended.” “Many critics also think that younger children sometimes have understanding of certain concepts and mental processes but they do not process the motors and language skills to display this knowledge. Thus, some of the timing of Piaget’s theory can sometimes be inaccurate due to a child’s ability to understand something faster than they can demonstrate that understanding.”
Both constructivist instruction as well as social development theory rely on hands on learning in the classroom. They both involve students experimenting and learning based on observation. • When teaching with both constructivist instruction as well as social development theory involve the teacher providing engaging activities in which students will make connections between previously learned material and new information. • Having the students use a nonlinear PowerPoint (possibly as an assessment) allows the students to use technology both guided and independently Social Development Theory and Constructivist Instruction
Direct Instruction Integrating Technology into… • Teachers use of a Smart Board or Document Camera when doing whole class instruction. • Students may watch a movie, or a story online throughout a lesson. Constructivist Instruction Students use manipulatives while learning (such as unifix cubes to practice addition) Students have access to text, audio, and visuals of the same information being presented.