Chapter 14 The Height of Imperialism 1800-1914
Section 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
What is the extension of a nation’s power over other lands known as…. Power is not enough. You always want more. Imperialism
Europeans under the new imperialism idea sought to ….. Have direct control over vast territories New Imperialism
European affairs grew tense… States sought to acquire territory abroad why? To gain an advantage over their rivals Rivals..
Europeans defended their imperialistic ventures because they had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive people Responsibility?
In 1819, Great Britain founded a colony on Singapore (“city of the lion”). Singapore soon became a major port to and from China. City of the Lion
Britain wanted control of what area to protect its possessions in India? Burma Britain
France in an attempt to stop Britain from moving into Vietnam in 1857 The French forced the Vietnamese to accept …. French protection protectorate Vietnam
After France conquered Indochina, Thailand was the only remaining…. Free State The last one standing
Two remarkable rulers prevented the takeover– King Mongkut and his son King Chulalongkorn. Both promoted friendly relations with the West and Western learning. Why Thailand?
President William McKinley decided to make what country into an American colony… Philippines McKinley’s rule
Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of an independence movement. His guerrilla forces fought against the Spanish and the United States, who defeated the guerrillas.
The United States naval forces under Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish in Manila Bay in the Philippines.
In Indirect Rule local rulers were allowed to .. Maintain their positions of authority Indirectly you can rule your land
When local elites resisted the foreign conquest, …. Direct Rule was enacted removing local rulers from power Elites always cause problems
Colonial policy stressed… The export of raw materials as opposed to encouraging homegrown industries It’s a matter of policy
Leaders of resistance to colonial rule were often the westernized… Intellectuals in the cities Le resistance
Section 2 Empire Building in Africa
Which 5 European countries placed all of Africa under European control b/w 1880 and 1900? Great Britain France Germany Belgium Portugal 5 finger discount of Africa
Muhammad Ali was a ruler in Egypt. He ruled for 30 years. He made the following reforms: Modernized the army Set a public school system Helped create small industries in sugar, textiles, muntions, and ships Muhammad Ali
Britain believed that the Suez Canal… Was their lifeline to India Built in 1854, by Ferdinand de Lesseps, a Frenchman. Great Britain always has to have a say in the matter
France established control of what North African country? Algeria 1879 France wins… for once
Italy tried to gain control in Africa in 1896, but were humiliated by what country? Ethiopia Italy tried again in 1911 and lost.
King Leo of Belgium colonized Central Africa.. Sorta… He hired Henry Stanley to set up Belgium settlements in the Congo King Leopold II of Belgium
What role did African delegates at the Berlin Conference have as the Europeans were carving up their continent? No African delegates were present. **trick question Germany, Britain and Portugal sent representatives. What would a turkey say to the person carving it up?
The Boers believed that God ordained what in relation to race differences? They believed that whites had superiority over black people and God ordained it. God has a preference to race?
The Boers frequently battled the Zulu,an indigenous people. The Zulu had risen to prominence under their great ruler, Shaka. Later the British defeated the Zulu. Racism leads to war
One of the goals of Cecil Rhodes was… To create a series of British colonies connected by a railroad
He named the territory north of the Transvaal Rhodesia, after himself. Rhodes’s ambitions led to his downfall in 1896.
Two African countries were free independent states in 1914. They were… Liberia and Ethiopia 1914 there were two, only two
Section 3 British Rule in India
There exists a gap between theory and practice in colonial policy…. Westerners had exalted democracy, equality and political freedom but did not apply these values in the colonies The “gap”
To rule India, the British East India Company had its own soldiers and forts. It also hired Indian soldiers, called sepoys, to protect the company’s interests. British no Indian, wait I’m confused
In 1857, Indians revolted against the British. Sepoy Mutiny, or Great Rebellion, to the British, and as the First War of Independence to the Indians. The immediate cause was the rumor that the British were passing out bullets greased with cow and pig fat Rebellion
At Kanpur, Indians with swords and knives massacred two hundred defenseless women and children. When they recaptured Kanpur, the British took their revenge. Kanpur
As a result of the Sepoy uprising, the British Parliament transferred the powers of the British East India Company to the British government. In 1876, Queen Victoria acquired the title of Empress of India. The Government takes control
The British government ruled India directly through a British official known as a viceroy–a governor who rules as a representative of a monarch.
Benefits of British rule • One benefit was that Britain brought order to a society wracked by civil war. • It also led to a fairly honest government. • Lord Thomas Macaulay set up a new school system. • The goal of the new system was to train Indian children to work in the colonial administrative system and the army
Costs of British rule • The new system served only upper-class Indians; 90 percent of the country remained illiterate. • Perhaps the greatest cost to the Indians of British rule was economic. • British manufactured goods destroyed local industries • The British showed disrespect for Indian culture
Many came from urban areas such as Mumbai (then called Bombay) and Calcutta. The slow pace of reform convinced most Indian nationalists they had to do more Reform movement
In 1885, a small group of Indians formed the Indian National Congress (INC). At first it called only for a share in the governing process. A split between Hindus and Muslims plagued the INC Indian National Congress
1915 Mohandas Gandhi While working at a law firm in South Africa Gandhi became aware of racial exploitation. Gandhi turned the Indian independence movement into one of nonviolent resistance. The aim was to win aid for the poor and independence. Gandhi
Section 4 Nation Building in Latin America
Social Classes in Latin America • Social classes based on privilege divided colonial Latin America. • The top level, the peninsulares, held the important positions. • Creoles (descendants of Europeans born in Latin America who lived there permanently) controlled land and businesses
Social classes cont. • Mestizos, the largest segment, worked as servants or laborers. • The creole elites were especially influenced by revolutionary ideals. • They especially resented the peninsulares–Spanish and Portuguese officials who resided temporarily in Latin America
Led by Toussaint-Louverture 100,000 slaves rose in revolt and seized contol of the island of Hispaniola this took place before the main independence movements began. In 1804, the area now called Haiti became the first independent state in Latin America. Haiti
Mexico -1810 Miguel Hidalgo was the first hero of the Mexican independence Inspired by the French Revolution, he urged the mestizos to free themselves from the Spanish Miguel Hidalgo