ACTIVE LISTENINGWHY AND HOW ? • M. Nur ALTINÇEKİÇ • Fatma SERGİCİ • M. Nihan BOZDOĞAN • Mahmut ŞAHİN • Canan KARATAŞ
THE LISTENING PROCESS “Listening is being silent with another person in an active way” Morton Kelsey
THE LISTENING PROCESS • Listening in communication process • The Listening Process • Purposes of Listening • Listening and Your life Nur ALTINÇEKİÇ
----You can’t learn to listen. You are either good at it or not • ---- Listening requires very little effort • ---- The words “listening” and “hearing” mean the same thing. • ---- Listening involves only ears • ---- Listening is an objective process. Your emotions do not affect your ability to listen
---- You tend to speak more than you listen • ---- Good speakers are usually good listeners • ---- You listen better as you get older • ---- Your need to listen becomes less • after you leave school • ---- You listen primarily to get information
LISTENING IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS Here is what Paul Rankin found: Our communication time is devoted: 9 percent to writing, 16 percent to reading, 30 percent to speaking, and 45 percent to LISTENING
LISTENING IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS The communication Process: communication involves sharing of meanings • Sharing: Person who is listening working hard also • Meanings: Common meanings make it possible to communicate
LISTENING IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS There are three main ideas to remember about listening • Speaking and listening happen at the same time • Listeners must be aware of both verbal and nonverbal messages • Effective communication occurs when the speakers and listeners share their meanings
THE LISTENING PROCESS Listening is a process of receiving, interpreting, evaluating and responding to messages • Receiving – Using Your Ears and Eyes • Interpreting – Tying in Your Experience • Evaluating – Examinig the Message • Responding – Expending an Effort
THE LISTENING PROCESS Ali says: “It looks as if my father is going to get married”.
PURPOSES OF LISTENING • To engage in social rituals One practical reason to listen well is to be able to participate in social situations. • To exchange information We listen most frequently to understand what another person trying to tell us • To exert control You need to be able to take control of your response • To share feelings Sharing feelings requires personal effort and risk both speaker and listener • To enjoy yourself: You listen other people’s speech for pleasure
GETTING THE MEANING The Perception Process The Context Barriers to Listening FATMA SERGİCİ
“I know you believe you understand what you think I said, but I’m not sure you realize that you heard is not what I meant.”
A. THE PERCEPTION PROCESS • Perception, is the process by which you filter and interpret what your senses tell you, so you can create a meaningful picture of the world.
Two-step perception process: Something affects your senses 1 You interpret your sensation 2
Why not everyone assigns the same meaning to the same messages ? PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES PAST EXPERIENCES PRESENT FEELINGS AND CIRCUMSTANCES
PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES • Although most of us have the use of all our senses, we don’t have exactly the same abilities.
PAST EXPERIENCES Our past experience will influence how we accept or reject a message. Past experiences may range from those that are considered general, or shared by many people you know, to those that are unique, or shared by few people.
PRESENT FEELINGS AND CIRCUMSTANCES • Emotions • Health • Various concerns Factors in how we listen
B. THE CONTEXT • Context background of a message that throws lights on the meaning of the words. • Good listeners are like good detectives. They put pieces of a puzzle together to get the whole story
1. THE OCCASION • An occasion or an event calls for certain type of communications. People tailor their conversation to certain occasions.
2. THE VERBAL/NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Think of the many meanings that you could give to the short sentence, “I will send the flowers.” depending on which word gets the emphasize • “I” not you • “will” I didn’t do it yet • …… • Although words are valuable source of meaning, the nonverbal cues help to put them in context.
3.THE SETTING • The size, privacy, and comfort of a place may affect e speaker’s message as well as the listener’s effectiveness in hearing it. • The time of day, or the amount of time available, often influence what someone says, or how someone says it. • Effective listeners consider place and time when interpreting a message.
4. THE PERSON • When you know people well, you are more likely to interpret their messages accurately • The more a listener knows about a speaker, the easier it is to put the speaker’s remarks in context.
We have barriers in all aspect of life as well as in communication and accordingly in listening. C.BARRIERS TO LISTENING
1. EXTERNAL DISTRACTIONS • Situations in the environment that keeps you from paying attention to the speaker. Temporary Permanent
2. INTERNAL DISTRACTIONS • Your own worries, excitements and even physical state will distract you from listening. • If possible, it is suggested to take precautions in advance.
3. CONFLICTING DEMANDS • There aretimes when you are trying to do too many things at once, so you cannot listen carefully. • Think that you are watching a program on TV while your mother trying to tell you her problems. How effectively can you listen to her?
4. THE SPEAKER’S CREDIBILITY • Crediblity refers to how believable the speaker is to you.
5. THE SPEAKER’S STYLE • Style refers to the speaker’s appearence, manner of speaking, and ability to relate to the listener. • If the speaker has worn big earrings or if he is keeping on playing his fingers, these may tend to distract the listener.
6.YOUR LACK OF INFORMATION • It is hard to try to interpret what the speaker is saying if the person doesn’t useverbal/nonverbal symbols you are familiar with.
7. YOUR PERSONAL BIASES • Our beliefs and attitudes generally creates a barrier toward certain subjects. • This occur when the subject is uninteresting to us, sensitive, political, etc…Or when the speaker and we have the opposite ideas.
8. YOUR DESIRE TO TALK • Most people would rather talk than listen, especially if they have to listen carefully. • They should learn the value of controlling their talking. Paraphrasing is a technique that can be used in this situations.
LISTENING FOR BASIC INFORMATION “Nature has given us one tongue but two ears, that we may hear from others twice as much as we speak.” Epictetus
LISTENING FOR BASIC INFORMATION Making things memorable Using thinking strategies Following directions M. Nihan BOZDOĞAN
Listening For Basic Information Everyone has some difficulty getting basic information. To show how to increase your ability to get basic information, we will look at the following areas: Making things memorable Using thinking strategies Following directions
Making things memorable What makes you sit up and take special notice even if the speaker is not very interesting? When we examine the parts of the MTM (making things memoable) model, we are looking at: (1) change, (2) novelty, (3) repetition, (4) application, and (5) thought speed.
Making things memorable What makes you pay special attention to the speaker? He or she makes something different happen. Something changes. Change
Making things memorable Novelty One can make things memorable through novelty.Novelty is unique to each situation. Someone may dress in a dramatic way, make outrageous comments or sing in the middle of the presentation. Although novelty involves personal risk, it will force listeners to pay attention. Novelty must be used only once in a while, or it loses its effectiveness.
Making things memorable Repetition If information is repeated a number of times, you are more likely to remember it than if you only hear it once. From introductions to full-fledged political speeches, repetition sends the signal – important!