They were created in 1984 by the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers as a way of giving geographers an effective way to categorize and organize geographic information.
What are the five themes? • Tools geographer’s use to study features on earth. • Location • Place • Movement • Region • Human Environment Interaction
Location“Where is the world is something?” • Describes where places are at on earth. • Types of Location: • ABSOLUTE:exact location on earth (fixed) • Doesn’t change • Latitude/Longitude • Grid System • Address • RELATIVE:COMPARED to other places (variable) • Changes dependent upon where you’re comparing it to. • Miles • Distance • Direction TASK: Use your map of the school to describe each type of location.
Absolute Location • Examples: • Kelowna is located at 49 N, 119 W • OKM is located at 4544 Gordon Drive • Grid System = A2, D11 • Canada is in the Northern Hemisphere
Relative Location • Examples: • Kelowna is approx. 400 km east of Vancouver, 600 km west of Calgary, 110 km north of the States border and 1100 km south of the Yukon border • Ecuador is south of Mexico
Place • A place is defined by it’s unique characteristics. • Physical characteristics • Cultural characteristics
Physical Characteristics • Specific to THAT place, not generic. • The way a place looks. • Created by nature. • Mountains • Rivers, Lakes, Seas • Climate • Vegetation • Examples: • Andes Mountains are in South America. • Amazon River flows through Brazil. Task: With a partner, describe Kelowna using the physical characteristics.
Ask yourself. . . -Is this place hilly or flat? -Is it rainy or dry? -Is the climate suited for agriculture? to paint a picture of the physical characteristics of a place.
Cultural Characteristics • Peoples activities change the way a place looks or is represented. • Man-made or invented. • Language • Unique buildings • Religious Practices • Celebrations/traditions/holidays • Examples: • Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. • Mayan ruins are located in Mexico. • Many Mexicans are Catholic. • Cinco de Mayo is a national holiday in Mexico.
Ask yourself. . . . -Is this place urban or rural? -What type of buildings are here? Residential or industrial? -How do people make a living? Farming?Fishing?Forestry?Industry? In Canada, forestry, mining and industry are important human activities that have left their mark on the landscape.
Movement • Places do not exist in isolation. • Interconnectedness of the world changes the way places“look”. • Today: “globalization” • People, goods & ideas move from place to place. • Examples • Immigration from Latin America to US. • War in Iraq (troops, supplies, ideas, people) • Myspace, Facebook (ideas)
Winds patterns, ocean currents and tides, tectonic plate movement, landslides, lava, flows, and moving glaciers are all common movements of our active planet as well.
Region • The world is divided into different regions based upon similarities & differences. • Climate • Location • Beliefs • Languages • Ethnicity/Race • Types: • Formal • Functional • Perceptual
Formal Region • Most common/familiar. • Determined by the distribution of a uniform characteristic (physical or cultural) • Location • Climate • Religion • Examples • St. Lawrence Lowlands • Latin America (spanish-speaking nations) • Tropics (countries located near equator)
Functional Region • Serves a purpose that affects places around it. • Distributes goods/people • Serves specific purpose • Examples: • Panama or the Red Sea • Hollywood • Distribution area of a newspaper
Perceptual Region • Groups of areas that provoke a certain stereotype or feeling. • Examples: • The ‘Bronx’ • The ‘ghetto’ • The ‘interior’ • ‘Up North’
Human Envion. Interaction • The environment & people are interconnected. • Consequences to those actions depend upon how people choose to interact with the world and use their resources. • Positive/Negative • Intentional/Accidental • (Herbicides& pesticides/ factories/ machines/ shelters)
HEI • Current Enviromental Issues: • Climate Change (global warming) • Energy Resources • Water Conservation • Deforestation
What personal examples can YOU think of for each theme of geography? • Can you think of any other world examples for each theme other than the ones provided? • You will have an entrance ticket next day on the ‘5 themes of Geography.’