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EVOLUTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EVOLUTION. A Quick Tutorial. http://darwin.nmsu.edu/~molb470/fall2005/projects/pan/. Charles Darwin. Natural Selection. Individuals in a population show differences, or variation. Variations can be inherited. Organisms have more offspring than can survive on available resources.

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A Quick Tutorial

natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Individuals in a population show differences, or variation.
  • Variations can be inherited.
  • Organisms have more offspring than can survive on available resources.
  • Variations that improve offspring chance of survival and reproductive success will have a greater chance of being passed on.
interactive activities natural selection
Interactive Activities: Natural Selection
  • Visualizing Natural Selection
  • Basic Principles of Natural Selection
  • Virtual Peppered Moth Simulation
the peppered moth biston betularia
The Peppered Moth (Biston betularia)
  • Industrial Revolution (18th century)
  • Tons of soot deposited on the country side around industrial areas.
  • In 1848, a dark-colored moth was first recorded.
  • Today, in some areas, 90% or more (at least 70 different species) of the-peppered moths are dark in color.
using your foldable
Using your foldable…
  • Use the “Peppered Moth Example” to fill in your foldable study guide about natural selection. Determine which parts of the story coincide with the principles of Darwin’s theory.
evidence of evolution
Evidence of Evolution
  • Fossil Evidence
    • Provides record of those species that no longer exist.
    • Ancient species show similarities with species currently on Earth.
      • DERIVED TRAITS – newly evolved features
      • ANCESTRAL TRAITS – primitive features that appear in ancestral forms.
    • Fossil record---creates a geologic time scale.
evidence from living organisms
Evidence from Living Organisms
  • Evidence of Common Ancestry --Hawaiian Honeycreeper
  • Homologous Structures--structures that are embryologically similar, but have different functions, the wing of a bird and the forearm of a human
  • Vestigial Organs--seemingly functionless parts, snakes have tiny pelvic and limb bones, humans have a tail bone and appendix
  • Biochemistry and DNA
  • Embryological development--Embryos of different species develop almost identically
  • Geographic Distribution
  • A trait shaped by natural selection that increases an organism’s reproductive success.
  • Fitness: measure of the relative contribution an individual trait makes to the next generation.
    • How many viable offspring does an organism provide to the next generation?

Compare Mimicry and Camouflage.

Antimicrobial Resistance
    • For almost every antibiotic, at least one species of resistant bacteria exists.
In a section of the Grand Canyon, scientists have found the fossil remains of several different groups of organisms. The diagram below represents the number and age of the fossils the scientists found. The width of each shaded area in the diagram below indicates the relative number of fossils found.
Which of the following

statements is supported by

the fossil record?

a. Group C is now extinct.

b. Group D has been in existence the longest.

c. Group A is the most recent organism to come into existence.

d. Group B was the most numerous organism 10 million years ago.

Which of the following is

usually most helpful in

determining the age of

these fossils?

a. the size of the fossils

b. the color of the fossils

c. the amount of surface area of the rock layer in which the fossils are found

d. the depth of the rock layer in which the fossils are found

The scientists hypothesize that

the four groups of fossilized

organisms originated from a

common ancestor. Which of the

following would provide the best

evidence that their hypothesis is


a. the number of fossils found in each group is similar.

b. present-day members of the groups live in the same environment.

c. fossils from each group were found in the same rock layer.

d. members of the groups have similar physical structures.

What adaptations do these organisms have to help increase their chances of survival in their environment?
the following species of fish can be found in dark caves
The following species of fish can be found in dark caves:
  • What adaptations does it have to survive in its environment?
  • Do you notice anything missing you would expect to SEE?
  • Why has this fish evolved to be blind?
Water is necessary for life. During Connecticut

winters, the ground freezes, making it difficult for

trees to absorb water. How are Connecticut trees

adapted to survive cold winters?

a. They use sap as a water source.

b. They reverse the photosynthetic process.

c. They drop their leaves and become dormant

d. They use the water produced during cellular respiration.