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4. Truman and the Cold War. Origins? Post-1945: Relations between U.S. and U.S.S.R. break down over Eastern Europe American politics takes rightward turn, leading many to criticize Democrats for “going soft” on Communism Soviet, Chinese Communist Victories

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4 truman and the cold war
4. Truman and the Cold War


Post-1945: Relations between U.S. and U.S.S.R. break down over Eastern Europe

American politics takes rightward turn, leading many to criticize Democrats for “going soft” on Communism

Soviet, Chinese Communist Victories

Soviets develop own atom bomb in late 1940s

Occupy Eastern Europe and establish “satellite states” nominally independent, but controlled by Moscow

Mao Tse-Tung and Chinese Communists win big victory in 1949, force Nationalists under Chiang Kai-Shek to flee to Taiwan

Development of “Containment” Doctrine

State department official George Kennan suggests “containment” idea as way of stopping Soviet (and later Chinese) expansion

Military, social aid to countries under Communist threat

Truman gives aid to Greece and Turkey to do this, develops Truman Doctrine that US must intervene to save allies from encroaching Soviet influence

The Marshall Plan and other economic assistance

U.S. pours $17.6 billion into Europe to help them rebuild, buy American products, and use American technical assistance

Program helps defuse Communist movements in free countries

Rhetorical battle to defend nations from Communist influence

1948—Stalin closes roads to West Berlin, Truman has major success with flying supplies to keep it alive and free

4. Truman and the Cold War

Willingness to commit U.S. troops “if necessary”

In aftermath of WWII, many Asian countries freed from Japanese control

Korea is divided between Soviet & Chinese-supported North and American-supported dictator in South

25 June 1950—North invades South

Documents show that Stalin supported North’s bid to invade and conquer South

Truman intervenes, takes advantage of Soviet abstention at UN to secure authority to stop the invasion

Calls operation “police action,” not a war

Gen. Douglas MacArthur launches Inchon invasion, defeats NK army and moves north to Chinese border

Chinese counterattack, MacArthur calls for widening the war, having Chiang Kai-shek invade China from Taiwan, and possibly using atomic bombs on Chinese cities

Vietnam (1950s-1973)

4. Truman and the Cold War

Truman is furious for disobeying orders to “contain the war” and prevent WWIII

Truman fires MacArthur officially for writing letter to GOP politicians


After three long years, Korean War ends with 36,516 US deaths and only after Pres. Eisenhower threatens the use of nukes to force NK to agree to a ceasefire—the war NEVER officially ended

4. Truman and the Cold War

george f kennan http www historyguide org europe kennan html
George F. Kennan http://www.historyguide.org/europe/kennan.html

What is the ideology of the Soviet Union?

What is Soviet internal and external (foreign) policy?

What does Kennan think the United States must do to resist Soviet expansion?

How does Kennan portray the role of the United States in a postwar world?

5 eisenhower and the cold war
5. Eisenhower and the Cold War

The Nuclear Response

By early 1950s, Soviets have atomic and nuclear bombs and can retaliate, but not nearly as strongly

Pres. Eisenhower embraces nukes

Massive Retaliation—if the Soviets do anything big, US will wipe them out (rather implausible, really)

“New Look” envisions “nuclear Armed Forces”

missiles, bombers

Army with nuke artillery

Military will get “more bang for the buck” as nukes are cheaper than huge conventional military

As Soviets gain parity with US on nukes in JFK admin, concepts of Flexible Response and Mutually Assured Destruction emerge

5 eisenhower and the cold war1
5. Eisenhower and the Cold War

Interventions to protect (and create) friends

CIA sponsors operations into Iran, Guatemala, elsewhere to back anti-Communist, but repressive regimes

Iran 1953: Long-serving dictator of Iran, Shah Pahlavi is forced from power by left-leaning Mohammad Mossadegh, who promptly nationalizes oil fields

Operation Ajax—CIA & MI6 cooperate to reinstate Shah with expectation that oil will continue to flow for benefit of British and American companies

Excuse is that Mossadegh might hand Iran over to Soviets

CIA hires army of thugs to disrupt the government and lead to Mossadegh’s ouster


5 eisenhower and the cold war2
5. Eisenhower and the Cold War


Country had elected left-wing reformer Jacobo Arbenz Guzman as President

Promises land reform (2 percent of people owned 70 percent of land)

Expropriates 400k acres of unused land from U.S.-based United Fruit Company

Only slight ties to Communists, but State Dept. insists that if Arbenz “thought like a Communist and talked like a Communist . . . [he] would do until one came along.”

1953—Ike approves CIA plan to remove Arbenz from power

HQ in Florida, training camps in Nicaragua and Honduras

$5-7 million gathered to create mercenary army from Guatemalan exiles

Will appoint U.S.-trained Col. Castillo Armas as president after coup

Washington cuts off funds to Guatemala, convinces OAS to issue statement condemning Communism

5 eisenhower and the cold war3
5. Eisenhower and the Cold War

The Final Act

May 1954—Unable to buy weapons from U.S. or its allies to defend himself from the upcoming coup, Arbenz tries to buy Czech arms

CIA responds by buying newspapers, spreading false stories about Arbenz going Communist, and dropping supplies at United Fruit locations

Armas’s small army invades from Honduras

U.S. planes bomb Guatemala City

Arbenz flees in fear after losing control of his army


Armas only survives to 1957, but is replaced by loyal pro-U.S. dictatorship

Guatemala serves as base for further operations against left-wing leaders—like Castro


5 eisenhower and the cold war4
5. Eisenhower and the Cold War

Eisenhower and Vietnam

Indochina denied independence after WWII

U.S. fails to push French to give up the country and it is restored to them after Japanese leave

Ho Chi Minh feels betrayed, begins nationalist war against French in name of American ideals of 1776

State Dept. increasingly sees Ho as a Communist

U.S. starts paying burden of French fight against Ho, 78 percent by 1954

French lose embarrassingly after battle of Dienbenphu, but Ike resists calls for US invasion

Temporary solution?

Plan is—divide VN between North and South (which worked so well in Korea), allow Ho to rule North, US-backed Ngo Dinh Diem to rule in South

Reunification election to be held in 1956 according to Geneva meeting, but US refuses to sign off

US, Ike back Diem’s refusal to hold elections and embrace Domino Theory, committing military advisors, but not ground troops, to Vietnam


National Security Council, NSC 136/1, "United States Policy regarding the Present Situation in Iran," Top Secret Report, November 20, 1952http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB126/iran521120.pdf

What does the document say about a possible USSR takeover of Iran? Why must it be opposed?

How does the document view Britain?

How does it view the current (Mossadegh) government?

What should the U.S. do to strengthen Iran against a Communist takeover?

the cold war at home
The Cold War at home…

The Second Red Scare

Like the “First Red Scare” post-WWI, Americans fear domestic subversion

Problem is, many Americans dabbled with Communism during 1930s due to Depression

Calls for loyalty tests, investigation not just of government officials, but Americans from several walks of life: teachers, lawyers, union organizers, entertainers, journalists

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

Ironically, set up in 1930s to investigate American Nazis

Biggest success is with Alger Hiss, State Department official

Working (illegally) with info from FBI, investigates and subpoenas thousands of people

Hearings frequently turn into circuses

“Are you now, or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party...?”

the cold war at home ii
The Cold War at home II

Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)

Works from the Senate to do almost same thing as HUAC

Charges less-grounded than HUAC

Makes personal attacks on powerful officials

Constantly changes numbers of how many Commies are in gov’t, sometimes hundreds, sometimes dozens

Has fanatical following, helps Republicans win elections

Falls after televised hearing shows him in action

Effects of all this?

Blacklist (thousands become unemployable due to mere accusations, refusal to testify, or “pleading the Fifth”

Chilling effect on domestic debate on important issues

Enforces conformity

the cold war at home iii
The Cold War at home III

The McCarran-Walter Act (1952)

Sponsored by Sen. Pat McCarran (D-NV) and Rep. Francis Walter (D-PA), both anti-Communist icons by mid-1950s

Allows for easy deportation of “subversive” aliens, denial of entry to political undesirables, and denaturalization and deportation proceedings against naturalized citizens

Eliminates remaining bans on Asian immigrants, allows for naturalization of Asian immigrants in U.S.

But: Asia-Pacific Triangle

Mostly maintains 1924 quota restrictions designed to favor northwestern European immigrants and limit everyone else:

Overall Ceiling: 154,657

Allocation: Each country given cap equal to 1/6 of 1 percent of persons in U.S. in 1920 whose ancestry derived from that area. Established minimum of 100 per country. General ceiling of 2000 for Asian countries.

No limitations on Western Hemisphere, but dependencies (Jamaica, for example) receive quotas of 100, not the quota of mother country.

6 jfk the cold war
6. JFK & the Cold War

JFK enters office with young, can-do team

Staunch anti-Communist, campaigns on non-existent “missile gap” in 1960

“action intellectuals” like ex-Ford Motor prez Robert McNamara

Emphasize slogans: “The Grand Design” for Europe, the “New Africa,” for Latin America the “Alliance for Progress” and the “New Frontier” for home

Data praised over people, computers over eyes on the ground

Commits administration to huge Cold War undertaking in his inaugural address

“Let every nation know that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”

The Berlin Speech

1961-East Germany builds wall to separate East and West Berlin

1963-JFK delivers strong speech supporting end of Communism and reunification http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56V6r2dpYH8

6 jfk the cold war1
6. JFK & the Cold War

Kennedy’s greatest challenge—Cuba

1959—Fidel Castro comes to power to depose U.S.-supported Batista dictatorship

Seizes much U.S.-owned property, including sugar, mining, and utilities developed since 1898 invasion

A nationalist and socialist at first, but not yet a Communist

Ike responds by ignoring and subbing Castro, while many in Washington suspect he will give in to USSR

JFK is very bellicose (warlike) on Castro in 1960 Campaign and in 1961

Claims Castro is a serious danger

Approves various CIA operations to take him out

Bay of Pigs fiasco

Ike-era plan trains Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and quickly overthrow Fidel with popular support

CIA completely underestimates popularity of Castro

April 1961-tiny 1400-man force hits Cuba

Surprise! No popular rebellion and JFK refuses to broaden the war with air support, dooming them

Does succeed at pushing Castro into Khrushchev's camp

a memorandum from kennedy aide richard goodwin http www gwu edu nsarchiv bayofpigs 19610822 pdf
A memorandum from Kennedy aide Richard Goodwinhttp://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/19610822.pdf

How does Goodwin describe Guevara's appearance and personality?

What does Guevara say about the state of the Cuban revolution and the problems he and Castro currently face?

What does he say about the Bay of Pigs invasion? Why?

What does he want from the United States? Were his desires realistic?

6 jfk the cold war2
6. JFK & the Cold War

The Missile Crisis

Castro asks for and receives lots of military aid from Soviets to deter another US invasion

Soviets recklessly put medium-range (1100 mile) missile sites on Cuba, which delights Fidel

Oct. 1962-the Crisis begins

U-2 spy plane sees missile sights and confirms them to JFK

“Executive Committee, Ex Comm” created to discuss possible options

JFK avoids directly working with Soviets, instead opts for public confrontation with TV address


Decides to “quarantine” Cuba from further Soviet military supplies

Soviets send a fleet to break the blockade, but at last minute, turn back

Khrushchev works with JFK to remove missiles from Cuba for promise not to invade Cuba (and secret promise to remove obsolete missiles from northern Turkey

7 vietnam
7. Vietnam

The fear of losing Vietnam…

Domino theory means every country in Asia will fall if we allow Vietnam to fall

Truman suffered greatly for “losing China,” JFK, LBJ will not do the same

Early interventions…

Ike provides military aid and a few advisors to prop up corrupt South Vietnam government

JFK increases number of advisors (including Special Forces), provide military training, aid… but what would he have done?

7 vietnam1
7. Vietnam

LBJ trapped by situation…

if he pulls advisors out, Vietnam will fall and he will get the blame for “losing Vietnam” just as Truman “lost China”

Decides gradual increase of troops is appropriate to control situation

Allows Americans to engage in combat with North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and Viet Cong (VC)

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution—

US ships were running intelligence gathering missions

Also escorting SV landing parties of special ops troops

NV ships briefly engage US ships, but unclear what exactly happened

LBJ portrays incident as “unprovoked attack” and convinces Congress to authorize him to do whatever was necessary to “protect US forces” and provide assistance to any ally requesting help in defending its freedom

7 vietnam attempts to win in vietnam
7. Vietnam—Attempts to win in Vietnam

Operation Rolling Thunder

Colossal bombing campaign designed to flatten North Vietnam, force them to the table

Ultimately fails, North Vietnam develops most sophisticated air defense system in the world

New Life Hamlet Program

To win the “hearts and minds” of the people

Relocate villagers to protected hamlets, provide them with food, education

Feeble attempt to undo the damage being done by Communists and Americans to villages

Search and destroy

Strategy of MACV (Mil. Asst. Command Vietnam) Gen. William Westmoreland emphasizes finding and destroying enemy troops and strongholds, does not recognize need to hold territory

Kill ratios become substitute for actual strategic gains, theory is that Vietnam will lose more troops than they can spare and lose the war (attrition)

7 vietnam losing vietnam
7. Vietnam—Losing Vietnam…

Dramatic troop presence, but no effective strategy

550,000 American personnel at high point

Overemphasis on technology, kill-power

Debatable cause

South Vietnamese government never improves, remains corrupt, incompetent, brutal toward own people

Viet Cong maintain strong popular support despite American attempts

The Media

Television brings bloody reality of war into Americans’ homes, Walter Cronkite and others question whether war is winnable

Tet Offensive (Jan. – Feb. 1968)

Military disaster for Viet Cong, but convinces Americans that war in Vietnam is far from over

Reveals “credibility gap” since LBJ had claimed war was going well

1971—three years later, Daniel Ellsberg leaks stolen Pentagon Papers to New York Times which only fuels opposition

7 vietnam ending vietnam
7. Vietnam—Ending Vietnam…

Ending Vietnam…

Nixon committed to forcing North Vietnamese to the table, but also to keeping South Vietnam from losing

1969- Vietnamization (train ARVN troops to defend own country, get all U.S. forces out by late 1972), as troops leave by tens of thousands, war protests die down

1970- Invasion of Cambodia (target Ho Chi Minh trail to weaken NVA ability to fight), leads to massive resumption of war protests, Kent State Massacre, shutdown of colleges

7 vietnam ending vietnam1
7. Vietnam—Ending Vietnam…

1972- North Vietnam launches new assault on South, Nixon uses heavy bombing of North to stop it

“Madman Theory”-Nixon wants North Vietnam to think “he’ll do anything to end the war”

Kissinger works with Le Duc To of North Vietnam for an end to the conflict, Pres. Thieu of South Vietnam refuses to accept it short of withdrawal of NVA troops

Ceasefire would allow:

Americans to leave

North Vietnam would release American POWs

South Vietnamese President Thieu would remain in power

NVA troops in South Vietnam would stay until final agreement

To ensure North will go along with treaty, Nixon orders “Christmas Bombings” which unleash staggering assault on the country

7 vietnam ending vietnam2
7. Vietnam—Ending Vietnam…

Jan. 27, 1973- U.S. and North Vietnam finally sign cease-fire, remaining U.S. troops are pulled out

October 1974- North Vietnamese decide U.S. will not intervene if they begin new campaign

March 1975- North Vietnam begins new invasion of South, South quickly collapses

April 29- North Vietnam takes Saigon, renames it Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam War ends as a total disaster

Pentagon Papers clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4kQG1bPf2k

philip caputo s a splendid little war in vietnam war attachment
Philip Caputo’s “A Splendid Little War” in Vietnam War attachment

How does Caputo portray patrol and combat operations in Vietnam?

What goes through Caputo’s mind as he makes observations in the foxhole?

What is the significance of the Kipling poem?

Explain the actions of PFC Buchanan.

What does Caputo’s night experience show about the war?

nixon s silent majority speech http www presidency ucsb edu ws pid 2303
Nixon’s Silent Majority Speechhttp://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=2303

How does Nixon describe and justify the need to Vietnamize the war?

What two alternatives does he propose for handling the war? Are these real alternatives?

What does he say about the state of American society? Why does he apologize for speaking of “patriotism?”

What arguments does he make for people to support his efforts?

Why does he use the phrase “silent majority?”

8 ending the cold war nixon
8. Ending the Cold War—Nixon

Foreign policy was always No. 1 Priority, Nixon approached it confidently

Bypasses State Department, relies heavily on White House’s National Security Council, appoints Henry Kissinger (German Jewish refugee, Harvard intellectual) to lead it

Emphasize realpolitik, a realistic approach to foreign policy based on securing national objectives by any means necessary, including working with unsavory characters, even with the enemy

H.K. and Nixon agree that containment, bipolar view of world is outdated, push for working with other rising nations in Europe, as well as Japan

Focus less on fighting the world’s battles, more on negotiation with Soviets, achieving “balance of power”

Simultaneously, continues to finance right-wing regimes in Latin America, sponsors coup in Chile

Opening China

Nixon recognizes America needed to approach China for economic and political reasons

China a huge potential trading partner…

Can use friendliness with China to help end Vietnam War, work with Soviets

Conducts secret negotiations in 1971… “Ping-Pong Diplomacy”

Nixon meets with Chairman Mao in February 1972, visit dramatically improves U.S.-China relations, ignores human rights, Taiwan, and nuclear weapons

8. Ending the Cold War—Nixon

Détente with the U.S.S.R.

May 1972- meets with Leonid Brezhnev to discuss arms and trade

SALT I treaty accepted, limits ICBMs and ABMs, only slightly limits arms production, but is huge step toward limiting arms in the future

Nixon notes Russian leaders now willing to talk, not as belligerent as they were in 1950s

8. Ending the Cold War—Nixon

Reagan’s philosophy quite different than Nixon, more challenging than Carter

1983 Evil Empire speech: “I urge you to beware the temptation of pride, the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.”

Reagan’s foreign policy

Rapidly increases military spending to challenge Soviets

Boosts economy, tech sector by doing so—runs unprecedented deficits

“Star Wars” envisioned as ICBM defense system

Rejects idea of arms reduction, instead brings back arms race

Derided as “Ronnie Ray-gun

Challenges Soviet Union in early 80s with Evil Empire talk

Mid-late 1980s—meets with Mikhail Gorbachev and eases relations, hastens end of Cold War

Remains tough on “Gorby” with Berlin speech: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-W1QBin4hHM

Initial tough talk and high spending, followed by some flexibility might have been right formula

Soviet Union collapsed a decade after he took office

8. Ending the Cold War—Reagan

Avoids costly troop commitments

American marines were in Beirut to protect U.S. interests following 1982 Israeli invasion chased out PLO

Marines were to keep peace between Christians and Muslims, but Reagan pulled them out after bloody terrorist attack killed 241, group known as Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility

Reagan nonetheless enjoyed a good anticommunist show, “Reagan Doctrine” emphasized “rollback” by sponsoring anti-Communist rebels

Grenada invasion 1983—followed Beirut bombing by just days…

Relatively harmless leftwing reform government toppled by internal coup, popular leader executed by rebels and protestors massacred

Reagan and military, who had been hoping for just such an opportunity to overthrow socialist government, took it

Reagan argues government is dominated by pro-Castro Communists

Invasion is mostly-popular, US suffers only 19 deaths in three-day operation, rescues US medical students never seriously threatened

Iran-Contra scandal (1986-1988)

Shadow network of intelligence agents conducts illegal sale of arms to Iran for return of American hostages (this went directly against US policy)

Profits from arms sales to Iran (and perhaps drug sales from other operations with ties to US-backed dictator Manuel Noriega) are pooled to finance Contra army

Goal of coordinator NSC operative Lt. Col. Oliver North was to overthrow leftwing Sandinista government in Nicaragua

8. Ending the Cold War—Reagan


Sen. Barry Goldwater on Mining of Nicaraguan Harborshttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/documents/d-nic-9.pdf

Just why is Goldwater so upset? Why does he feel betrayed?

What does he say about the mining itself? Do you think he was right?

What does this reveal about the administration's actions?


Special Activities in Nicaragua – the Mining Operationhttp://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/documents/d-all-6.pdf

Note the date in this document. How long did it take for this to become public?

How much of this is redacted?

What was the purpose of the mining?

Were there important specifics about the operation?

9 the new world order of bush i and clinton
9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

Bush foreign policy (his greatest successes)

Settles the end of the Cold War (great diplomat)

Envisions “new world order” to address power vacuum left by collapse of Soviet Union

Averted major conflicts with East in aftermath of breakup and aided transition of Eastern Europe toward capitalism

1989 Panama Invasion – “Operation Just Cause”

Without Congressional approval, launches a major invasion of Panama costing a paltry 40 US lives and perhaps 500 Panamanian soldiers and civilians

Human rights groups argue death toll MUCH higher—3500 or more, from pulverized neighborhood

US-backed regime succeeding Noriega had strong desire to downplay such high estimates

removes CIA-installed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega who, surprise, surprise, was selling drugs

Raw Footage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2v6roCPKvZU

1990-1991: Pursues Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War

US had backed Hussein for a decade

US also backed his enemies, the Iranians, with weapons so each side could kill each other off in the Iraq-Iran War

US had also backed Hussein’s enemies, the Israelis, with lots of military aid since the 1970s and had supported Israeli operations

2-4 Aug 1990—Hussein invades and quickly conquers Kuwait, arguing it was “historically” part of Iraq

7 Aug 1990—Pres. Bush begins Operation Desert Shield to prevent Hussein from taking over Saudi Arabia as well (primarily to protect U.S. oil supply)

24-28 Feb 1991—authorizes Operation Desert Storm to liberate Kuwait and push Hussein back into Iraq

BUT stops short of invading Iraq to protect American lives from needless occupation

Sec. of State Dick Cheney and Chair of Joint Chiefs Gen. Colin Powell both agree that invasion of Iraq and regime change is unnecessary and dangerous

For next twelve years, US deals with Iraq through UN weapons inspections and occasional bombings, as well as painful embargo that primarily hurt civilians the most

9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

bush i on the start of operation desert storm http www presidency ucsb edu ws pid 19222
Bush I on the start of Operation Desert Stormhttp://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=19222

How does Bush portray Hussein in this speech? Of what does he accuse him?

What is the justification for attacking now, rather than waiting for sanctions to take effect?

What is the “new world order” he mentions? What else could it actually be?

How does he envision the war unfolding? Why does he contrast the mission with the war in Vietnam?

How does he use the words of servicepeople to get Americans to support the war effort?

Powell Doctrine: the United States should commit its men and women in the military to combat only as a last resort and after all other non-violent policy alternatives had been exhausted — and then, only

(1) when the vital national security interest of the nation is threatened by the intended target,

(2) when the U.S. force used is overwhelming and disproportionate to the force available to the enemy,

(3) when the action and mission are fully understood and strongly supported by the American people and the mission has genuine international support, and

(4) there is a clear and plausible exit strategy for the U.S. troops involved.

9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

Post-Cold War president

Emphasizes need to shift to domestic concerns following fall of Soviet Union

By dramatically cutting military spending, Clinton able to balance budget by mid-1990s

Raises taxes slightly, but able to avoid criticism as economy improves

Mostly peace, but a sprinkling of war

Fairly-effective diplomat and well-liked worldwide

Avoids painful commitments (like Somalia, Rwanda)

Somalia 1993—US troops in Somalia to help deliver food supplies to starving people, attempt to establish order and keep warlords under control

Encounter painful, coordinated attacks and 43 Americans are killed

Clinton recognizes unpopularity of losing lives and evacuates all forces by 1995

Mission does succeed at reducing famine, if not political chaos

9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

Rwanda—the path not taken

1994: Hutus (majority) rise up against Tutsi minority (which had held elite status historically)

Around 800,000 Tutsis killed by machetes by Hutu mobs, many by their neighbors

French UN presence, but no authority to use violence and no numbers to show enough force

Clinton resists taking serious action and delays until it is much too late, expresses regrets later

Bosnia and Serbia—the path taken

In aftermath of fall of Yugoslavia, Serbs, Croats, and Muslims battle for ethnic enclaves in Bosnia

Serbs commit terrible atrocities, executions, mass rapes, and expulsions in the name of “ethnic cleansing”

Clinton supports NATO bombing campaign that breaks power of Serb army and dispatches 20k American peacekeepers despite public opposition

9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

1999- (Yugoslavian) Serbian forces under Slobodan Milosevic attack ethnic Albanian Muslims in Kosovo

Clinton supports another massive bombing campaign

War costs 2,000-5,000 lives, but a handful of NATO lives

Again, peacekeeping force sent in

Milosevic indicted for war crimes, but dies of heart attack in his cell

Real foreign policy issues go by unsolved…

North Korea, Iran, and little-known Al-Qaeda

9. The New World Order of Bush I and Clinton

US Department of State, cable number 127262, 13 May 94 on Rwandahttp://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB53/rw051394.pdf

What is the attitude of the State Department toward sending troops into Rwanda? What concerns or difficulties are listed?

Instead of a response to actively stopping the violence, what does the document propose instead?

What were the advantages of establishing "safety zones" instead of trying to stop the violence?

How does this approach to problem-solving contrast with Bush's words on Saddam Hussein?

Richard A. Clarke to Condi Rice on Al-Qaeda threat, 25 Jan 01 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB147/clarke%20memo.pdf

What is Clarke’s opinion of Al-Qaeda? Why is it not “just some terrorist group?

How does Clarke explain Al-Qaeda’s vision and goals?

What policy questions does he list? What do these suggest about the tactics that might have been used against bin Laden?

10 the ongoing war on terror
10. The Ongoing War on Terror

The War on Terror

Bush’s political salvation- the 9/11 attacks

Is strong, even inspiring leader in aftermath, pledges quick response to terrorism

No one reads their history…

Invades Afghanistan (the “graveyard of empires”) to depose Taliban, capture Osama bin Laden (who escapes into Pakistan)

Notice we’re still there even after Bin Laden killed—longest ongoing conflict since Vietnam

Liberty or security? You choose…

With wide bi-partisan support, pushes the USA PATRIOT act through Congress

Greatly expands administration power to intercept information, interrogate and arrest suspects, spy on Americans and foreigners

Harassment at the airports

“Legal” torture (or enhanced interrogation techniques?)

Detainee abuse at Abu Ghraib

Long-term detention at Guantanamo

Justifications for Iraq invasion?

Late 2002- administration officials begin pushing for invasion of Iraq to “disarm” Saddam Hussein

Accusations made that Hussein has WMDs and could potentially give them to Al-Qaeda

Bush rallies Congress behind war effort with resolution

Fails to unite UN, France, or Germany behind the plan

WMDs never turn up after the invasion, so justification shifted mainly to “spread democracy (neocon theory)”

Great war, horrible peace

March 2003- Hussein strangely refuses to give in, U.S. and British invade

Invasion itself is brilliant, but aftermath a disaster

Sunni and Shiia militias ironically unite for a time to attack US

The “magnet theory…if we fight them there, they won’t come over here”


Billions of dollars, 1,000s of US lives, 100,000s of Iraqi lives lost—great profits go to Halliburton, Blackwater

Iraq is free, but still surrounded by dictatorships

10. The Ongoing War on Terror

osama bin laden on the war http www aljazeera com archive 2004 11 200849163336457223 html
Osama bin Laden on the warhttp://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2004/11/200849163336457223.html

Why does bin Laden trace his support of terrorism to the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon?

Where did his inspiration for the Twin Towers come from?

Summarize the criticisms he makes against Bush I and II.

According to his estimates, was 9/11 an effective military operation?

Does he propose solutions? What were people supposed to take away from this?

Obama foreign policy

Beloved by world before taking office (quite a departure from W, obviously) and gets Nobel Peace Prize in fall 2009

Does finally get the troops out of Iraq (at least the vast majority)

Launches a surge, then a reduction in troops in Afghanistan

Supports Arab Spring with some caution

Assists civil war in Libya with air support, very Bill Clinton

Strains to pull loose from ties to Israel

Bin Laden killing clearly his greatest success, but troops still in Afghanistan and elsewhere in large numbers

Drone strikes against foreign as well as citizen suspected terrorists in other countries

North Korea? Iran?

“Gitmo” still open, but admin is pushing for means of trying suspects, jailing them on mainland

Benghazi disaster—US embassy attacked, ambassador killed in 2012

10. The Ongoing War on Terror