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SMALCALD ARTICLES. Story Behind the Confession. The changed circumstances (from 1530): papal intransigence; spreading Lutheranism

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story behind the confession
Story Behind the Confession
  • The changed circumstances (from 1530): papal intransigence; spreading Lutheranism
  • Renewed negotiations with South German Protestants: WITTENBERG CONCORD “Therefore they hold that, where Christ’s institution and command are observed, the body and blood of Christ are truly distributed to the unworthy, too, and they truly receive it.”
    • The question: What does “unworthy” mean?
Differences of interpretation
    • “Unworthy” pertains to the attitude of a humble believer. (Lord, I am not worthy to have you come under my roof.)
    • “Unworthy” describes the attitude of an unbeliever. (Whoever does not believe or doubts is unworthy.)
The two teachings
    • Sacramentarians granted reception of Christ’s body to believers only.
    • Lutherans insisted that, since the word of Jesus makes the sacrament what it is, his body and blood are received by both believers and unbelievers. Faith does not validate the sacrament but receives it, for the believer a blessing, for the unbeliever a judgment.

D: 32

i ecumenical
I. Ecumenical
  • Sounds like Athanasian Creed
  • Mary = semper virgines?
    • 1215 1st canon
  • We emphasize Holy Spirit, not Mary
ii confrontational
II. Confrontational
  • Justification
  • The Mass
  • Monasticism
  • The Papacy
1 justification
1. Justification
  • The 4 Giants of the Bible
    • Romans 4:25
    • John 1:29
    • Isaiah 53:6
    • Romans 3:23-25
  • Why is it correct to say that Luther's text is Scripture alone?
  • Luther “walks with hob-nailed boots”
    • Places the papacy in the company of the devil
2 the mass
2. The Mass
  • The Mass had become the greatest abomination
    • Human invention
    • Unnecessary
    • A better way
    • Abuses
    • Human work
  • Self-communion??
  • The decisive issue in the council



The Mass

this dragon s tail
“This Dragon’s Tail”
  • Purgatory

2nd Benchmark: Only the Word of God shall establish articles of faith.

  • Souls of the Departed
  • Pilgrimages
  • Fraternities
  • Relics
  • Indulgences
      • Invocation of the Saints
3 monasticism
3. Monasticism
  • A short article because monasticism was in decline
  • “For all of this, too, is contrary to the first and chief article concerning redemption in Jesus Christ.”
4 the papacy
4. The Papacy
  • The pope is NOT the head of all Christendom “by divine right.”
  • In the papacy the anti-Christian spirit comes to culmination
  • The true end-times Antichrist
    • Endchrist
    • Widerchrist
who is the antichrist
The spirit of heresy

The Roman empire






Simon Magus

the Jews

Resurrected Nero

Emperor Frederick II

A son of Luther

Peter the Great


Secretary-General of the UN

Militant Islam

Friedrich Nietzsche

Marilyn Manson

Ronald Wilson Reagan (666)

George W. Bush

David Hasselhoff

Who is the Antichrist?
the marks of the antichrist 2 thessalonians 2
The Marks of the Antichrist2 Thessalonians 2
  • The pope reigns in the church
  • Papal teaching contradicts the gospel
    • He assumes the right to alter Christ’s teaching
    • He claims power to loose and bind in this life and authority over souls after this life
    • He places his authority above councils
    • He defends dreadful errors with the greatest savagery: Masses, indulgences, saints

D: 33

treatise on the power and primacy of the pope
Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope
  • The bishop of Rome claims:
      • Superiority over all bishops and pastors
      • Both swords
      • Necessary for salvation to believe this
  • Scripture and church history reject hierarchy in the church
  • Proof passages for hierarchy are misinterpreted
    • Mt 16:18 and Jn 21:17
the power and jurisdiction of bishops
The Power and Jurisdiction of Bishops
  • Scripture does not set up a hierarchy
  • The right of government is given to the entire church
  • Matrimonial cases belong to the jurisdiction of the government – not the church
iii conversational

The Law


The Gospel


Sacrament of the Altar

The Keys



Ordination and Vocation

Marriage of priests

The Church

Justification and Good Works

Monastic Vows

Human Regulations

III. Conversational
1 concerning sin
Original sin = the chief sin

Fruits of this sin

Believed on the basis of the Scriptures

Scholastic teaching:

Natural powers uncorrupted

A free will by nature

Ability to keep God’s commands

Natural power to love God

Do the best you can

Enough not to have an evil intention

Can do good works without faith

= Pagan teachings

1. Concerning Sin
2 concerning the law
2. Concerning the Law
  • The message that reveals our sinfulness
    • A curb
    • A mirror
3 concerning repentance
3. Concerning Repentance
  • The salutary effect of the law as a mirror
  • Longest article in SA
  • Active and passive contrition
  • After the Law come with the Gospel




“always doing penance but never arriving at repentance”




“Nothing in my hand I bring; simply to Thy cross I cling.”

simul justus et peccator

4 concerning the gospel
4. Concerning the Gospel
  • The spoken Word
  • Baptism
  • The Sacrament of the Altar
  • The Keys
  • Mutual conversation
5 concerning baptism
5. Concerning Baptism
  • Thomas Aquinas and the Dominicans – the water is spiritualized
  • Duns Scotus and the Franciscans – Baptism is turned into a symbol

* * *

  • Do not exempt infants from original sin.

D: 37 & 38

6 concerning the sacrament of the altar
Romanists have a partial sacrament; the Reformed have no sacrament

Substance = what makes a thing what it is

Accident = attached to a substance

6. Concerning the Sacrament of the Altar

Body and Blood

changed to

Bread and Wine

7 concerning the keys
7. Concerning the Keys
  • An office and authority given to the church by Christ to bind and loose sins.
8 concerning confession
8. Concerning Confession
  • Luther stresses absolution.
  • Enthusiasts say the Holy Spirit doesn’t need means and so the Word isn’t necessary.


1st Benchmark: All Scripture is Law and Gospel. (AAC IV:5 p. 83)

2nd Benchmark: Only the Word of God shall establish articles of faith. (SA II:15 p. 266)

3rd Benchmark: God does not deal with us except through Word and Sacrament. (SA VIII:10 p. 281)




D: 40

9 concerning excommunication
9. Concerning Excommunication
  • Impenitence = the other side of the Keys
  • Interdict
10 concerning ordination and vocation
10. Concerning Ordination and Vocation
  • Who administers the Means of Grace?
11 concerning the marriage of priests
11. Concerning the Marriage of Priests
  • “so little did they have the power to separate such creatures of God or to forbid them from living together honestly in marriage”
12 concerning the church
12. Concerning the Church
  • “a seven-year-old child knows what the church is: holy believers and the little sheep who hear the voice of their Shepherd”
  • Believers gathered around the Means of Grace
13 how a person is justified and concerning good works
13. How a Person is Justified and Concerning Good Works
  • The heart and core of Lutheran theology
  • AC IV and VI combined
14 concerning monastic vows
14. Concerning Monastic Vows
  • What is NOT necessary for justificaion
  • Monastic vows are equal to baptism?? BLASPHEMY!!
15 concerning human regulations
15. Concerning Human Regulations
  • Human regulations cannot attain the forgiveness of sins or merit salvation.