Articles Made by Bogomaz Natalya, Gartung Stella, Inothemtzev Denis, Korolyov Il’ya, Khanjzhin Ivan LB1-11-40
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (THE) • A noun is definite (specific) when you and your listener both know which person, place, or thing you mean.
Use the definite article when: • nouns are specific for you and your listener; • a person, place, or thing is unique—there's only one (The Queen, the President, BUT: Queen Victoria, President Barack Obama); • the context makes it clear which person, place, or thing you mean.
Also use the definite article with: • the names of rivers(the Thames); • the names of musical instrumentsand dances(the guitar, the salsa); • the names of museums(the Louvre); • nationalities(the French);
Also use the definite article with: • historical periods/events • the words morning, afternoon, station, city, village, etc(1. the day after tomorrow, BUT: at night, at noon, at midnight, by day/night; 2. the last Ice Age, the Vietnam war, BUT: World War I); • adjectives used as nouns to refer to a group of people (The blind);
Also use the definite article with: • only, last, first used as adjectives and with the superlative degree of adjectives/adverbs (1. She was the only one who didn’t come; 2. the best, BUT: Most people enjoy going to the cinema); • titles when the name of the person is not mentioned (The King).
Set expressions with the • what is the time? • the day before yesterday • the day after tomorrow • on the right (left) • on the whole • to go to the theatre (the cinema) • to play the piano (other instruments) • to tell the truth • on the table (bed … ) • in the morning (evening, night…)
Exceptions with the • Germany, India, Australia, BUT: the Netherlands, the Gambia, the Vatican • Bob speaks Polish, French and English fluently, BUT: The Polish language, the French language, the English language. • You can use thewith most nouns, count and non-count, singular and plural.
THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE (A/AN) • A noun is indefinite (not specific) when either you or your listener do not have a particular person, place, or thing in mind.
Use the indefinite article with: • singular count nouns that are not specific (I can’t find a taxi); • a noun is often indefinite the first time a speaker mentions it (I have got a car. The car is red.); • the verbs to be and have (got)(Have you got a pen?); • Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms when we refer to an unknown person.
Also use the indefinite article to show: • price in relation to weight; • distance in relation to time; • frequency.
Exceptions with a/an • A university, a European; • An hour, an honest man. • Use a before consonant sounds and an before vowel.
ZERO ARTICLE • Use zero article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns to make general statements.
Use zero article with: • the proper nouns; • the names of sports, games, activities, days, months, celebrations, colors, drinks, meals languages; • the names of countries,cities, streets, squares, bridges, parks,railway stations, mountains, individual islands, lakes, continents;
Use zero article with • possessive adjectives or the possessive case; • two-word names when the first word is the name of a person or place; • the names of pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels named after the people who started them, and ending in -s or -'s; • the words bed, church, college, court, hospital, prison, school, university, when we refer to the purpose for which they exist; • seasons.
Recourses • Вейхман Г.А. В 26 Новое в английской грамматике: Учеб. пособие для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз.-М.: Высш. шк., 1990.-128с. • http://english4u.dp.ua/modules.php?name=Articles&op=Open&id=952