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Chapter 26: The Cold War

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Chapter 26: The Cold War. Clash of Interests. Soviet Union Concerned about security Wanted Germany to be weak Suspicious of capitalistic nations America Wanted economic growth Promote democracy Free Enterprise system (private property and limited gov). Yalta Conference.

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clash of interests
Clash of Interests
  • Soviet Union
    • Concerned about security
    • Wanted Germany to be weak
    • Suspicious of capitalistic nations
  • America
    • Wanted economic growth
    • Promote democracy
    • Free Enterprise system (private property and limited gov)
yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • Plan for post-war world
  • Plan for Poland:
    • Polish Dem. gov. vs. Polish communist government
    • U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.
    • Free leaders recognize Polish gov. set up by Russia with prior Polish leaders
  • Declaration of Liberated Europe
    • People will choose the form of government under which they will live
dividing germany
Dividing Germany
  • Germany divided into 4 zones
    • G.B., U.S., France and Russia get a zone
    • Berlin divided among the 4 countries
potsdam conference
Potsdam Conference
  • Truman and Stalin meet at Potsdam to work out a deal on Germany
    • Truman concerned about German industry
    • Stalin wanted Germany’s reparations
  • Truman vs. Stalin:
    • Truman wants Stalin to take reparations from the Soviet Zone – Stalin hates this!!!
    • Truman gives Stalin industrial equipment & threatens US has atom bomb
containing communism
Containing Communism
  • George Kennan
    • Explains Soviet behavior
    • Sends the long telegram – 5,540 word message
    • Soviets insecure with West – no agreements with Americans
  • Long Telegram secures idea of Containment
crisis in iran
Crisis In Iran
  • During WWII
    • American troops in Southern Iran
    • Soviets in Northern Iran
    • Issues over securing oil supply lines
  • After WWII
    • Soviets refuse to withdraw from Japan
    • Stalin helps Iranians in North form a Communist government
truman doctrine 1947
Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • Soviets focusing on Turkey
  • Dean Acheson (pres. Advisor) tells Truman Soviets need to see American force
  • March 12, 1947 Truman Doctrine
    • $400 million to fight communists in Greece and Turkey
    • Goal was to aid free peoples resisting Communism
    • Pledged the US to fight Communism worldwide
marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • Postwar Europe in economic problems
  • Marshall Plan would provide economic recovery
  • Provided billions for supplies, machinery, and food into Western Europe
crisis in berlin
Crisis in Berlin
  • Western Europe’s prosperity depended on Germany
  • Soviets trying to undermine Germany’s economy
  • Democratic countries join zones to allow Germans to have their own gov.
  • West Germany – Democratic
  • East Germany – Russia
berlin air lift
Berlin Air Lift
  • Splitting Germany = Soviets not getting reparations they wanted
  • Soviets cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin (democratic zone)
  • Soviets trying to get all of Berlin
  • Truman orders Berlin Air Lift
    • 11 months long
    • Planes dropped 2 million tons of supplies
  • Airlift symbolized American fight for a Democratic Germany
  • North Atlantic treaty Organization
    • 12 countries involved
    • Members would aid any country attacked by Russia
  • Warsaw Pact
    • Russian military alliance in eastern Europe
civil war in china
Civil War in China
  • Mao Zedong (communist) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalist)
  • After WWII Civil War broke out again!!!
  • To support Nationalist cause – US sends $2 billion to Chiang Kai-shek
  • Poor military planning – Mao wins!!!
  • People’s Republic of China established
the korean war
The Korean War
  • American and Soviet forces remove Japanese from Korea
  • Korea Divided at the 38th Parallel
    • North: Russia
    • South: U.S.
  • Both countries fund the troops in their zone
  • North Korean troops invade South Korea on June 25, 1950
the un intervenes
The UN Intervenes
  • Pres. Truman orders Air and Sea forces into South Korea
  • Gets permission from the UN
  • Truman orders MacArthur to fight in Korea
  • U.S. forces are driven from 38th parallel to “Pusan perimeter”
  • MacArthur invades North Korea (by surprise) at Inchon and maintains the 38th parallel
china enters war
China Enters War
  • Chinese sees UN troops as a threat and launch an attack on the Americans
  • Troops are driven back below 38th parallel (AGAIN!!!)
  • MacArthur
    • wants more troops (nationalist forces from China)
    • called for the blockade of Chinese ports
    • Use A-Bomb on Chinese cities
  • Truman denies and fires MacArthur
  • Maintains limited war!!!
ch 26 sect 3
Ch. 26 Sect. 3
  • New Red Scare
    • Fear of Communists taking over World
    • Igor Gouzenko defected – US learns of Communist subversion
    • Loyalty Review Prog.
      • Federal workers screened for being Communist
      • 6 million screened – 2000 quit – 212 fired for “questionable loyalty”
    • HUAC (House UnAmerican Activities Committee)
      • J. Edgar Hoover (FBI) makes HUAC important
      • Infiltrated groups and wiretapped phones
alger hiss
Alger Hiss
  • Lawyer and diplomat
  • Accused of being a Communist and a spy
  • Secret gov. documents and microfilm (called “pumpkin papers”) revealed Hiss was a spy
  • Jury convicts Hiss of perjury
the rosenbergs
The Rosenbergs
  • American commies selling A-Bomb secrets
  • Klaus Fuchs sent info to Soviet Union
  • Implements Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – who were part of Communist party
  • Gov. gave Rosenbergs DEATH PENALTY for espionage
  • Executed June, 1953
  • Project Verona – cryptographers cracked

Russian codes

mccarran act
McCarran Act
  • Internal security act
  • Illegal to form anything leading to a totalitarian gov.
  • Truman vetoed the act – but congress passes it
  • Never very effective
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy claims he knew of American communists
  • Never revealed Americans names!!!
  • Claimed high ranking Gov officials were Red
  • Investigation = Witch Hunt
  • McCarthyism – damaging reputations with bogus charges!!!
mccarthy s downfall
McCarthy’s Downfall
  • McCarthy looked for spies in Army
  • Army claims no spies – McCarthy takes fight to TV
  • Bullies officers
  • Public support starts to fade
  • Senate passes a vote of censure – McCarthy fades away!!!
nuclear bomb
Nuclear Bomb!!!
  • America prepares for atomic war
  • “Duck and Cover”
  • Fallout shelters were built for safety.
ch 26 sect 31
Ch. 26 Sect. 3
  • Election of 1952
    • Adlai Stevenson (gov Illinois)
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower
    • Eisenhower wins!!!
  • Eisenhower
    • D-Day general
    • Military and Economy key to winning Cold War
    • “New Look” in defenses
    • Nuclear Weapons give “More Bang for the Buck”
sputnik crisis
Sputnik Crisis
  • Airforce unveils B-52 bombers
  • ICBM’s (inter-continental ballistic missiles)
  • Soviets launch SPUTNIK – first satellite!!!
  • US feels they are falling behind!
  • Congress creates:
    • NASA
    • National Defense Education Act
  • Willingness to threaten nuclear war to maintain peace
  • Korean War ends with an armistice (July, 1953)
taiwan crisis
Taiwan Crisis
  • China tries to control Taiwan
  • Taiwan part of barrier against Communism in Asia
  • Ike threatens Nuclear weapons
  • China backs down
suez crisis
Suez Crisis
  • US helps Egypt build a dam on the Nile River
  • Egypt bought weapons from Communists
  • US leaves project – Egypt seizes Suez Canal for $
  • Russia wins out – Arab nations begin taking

Communist Money

fighting communism covertly
Fighting Communism Covertly
  • Eisenhower uses CIA to wage covert war
  • 1958 – IKE and Khrushchev meet at summit in Paris
  • U-2 Spy plane and Francis Gary Powers Incident ruins summit