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The experience of a new country with EU policies in the field of Higher Education and Research: The Case of Hungary Prof. György BAZSAPresident, Hungarian Higher Education and Research Council ESMU General Assembly4 March, 2005.
1. Mai 2004: Enlargement of the European Union 15 + 10 = 25 countries under the blue flag, under the umbrella of the new EU Constitution • Historical event • for Europe: end of (in Jalta) divided Europe • for the tens: political, organisational, cultural and economic (re)union with western civilization • for the world: a stronger corner of the competi-tive triangle world (USA – far East – Europe). • Otherwise: continuing thousand years long coexistence and co-operation – in peace
European policies in Higher Education and and Research: • European Higher Education Area • European Research Area (incl. FPs) • two pillars of the knowledge based society • EHEA: Bologna Declaration (1999) → Prag → Berlin → Bergen → 2010 (funded and managed mainly by member states) • ERA: Lisbon Declaration (2000) – Barcelona (3%) 2010 – „a most competitive Europe” (funded and managed mainly by the EU)
Hungary– 10 millions, 9th in population of 25 • Hungarian scientists in the 20th century • Nobel-laureates: Bárány (med), Szent-Györgyi (Vitamin-C), Hevessy (chem), Wigner (phys), Gábor (laser), Oláh (chem), Harsányi (econ), Herschko (biochem) • Neumann (comp), Teller, Szilárd (nucl. ph.) • Eötvös (phys), Kármán (aviation), Kandó (techn.), • (Bolyai), Fejér, Riesz, Polya (math)
Hungarian Higher Education: • based on 12 years obligatory public education • two tears, non-linear degree system + PhD • 18 state, 5 church, 2 private universities • 12 state, 23 church, 11 private colleges • ~ 200.000 state funded, ~ 200.000 fee paying students (fee is politically mismatched) • European (mainly German) tradition (lot of pe-regrinations), orientation and level (TEMPUS) • Legal framework: Law 1993 on Higher Education
Hungarian research, development,innovation • Three tears: • higher education – [2/3] – Min. of Education • research institutes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) and those of the State • applied research centres of the economy (industry, multinational firms, etc.) • Legal framework: • Law 1994 on HAS (autonomous public body) • Law 2004 on Research, Development and Technological Innovation (National Office of Research and Development)
Role of universities • Comission of European Communities • Brussels, 05.02.2003 - COM(2003) 58 final • „The role of the universities in the Europe of knowledge” • European University AssociationGraz Declaration (July, 2003, EUA) • „Forward from Berlin: the Role of the Universities” • consolidating research as an integral part of HE • Hungary: research is an integral part of universities. • less efforts of Rector’s Conference and Min. Ed. • strongly forced by the Hun. Accreditation Comm.
Financing: ~1% of GDP • unfortunately not increasing • mainly state funded, less private funds • grant systems exist (OTKA, MÜFA etc.) • tendency of concentrated supports • forcing and supporting academic + profes-sional co-operations (R+D+I)
The 6th framework programme – 2002–2006 • Aim: realising ERA • Proposal: February 2001 • Hungary joints: October 2002 • First applications: December 2002 • 17,5 billion € [= 3.9% of EU budget in 2001] • 1 May, 2004: + 2,5 billion € for new members • Hungary: • active, successful scientific participation, • regular surplus against payments
7th Frameworks Programme (2007-2013) • Creating European centres of excellence through collaboration between laboratories • Launching European technological initiatives • Stimulating the creativity of basic research through competition between teams at European level • Making Europe more attractive to the best researchers • Developing research infrastructure of European interest • Improving the coordination of national research programmes • 2 new areas: space and security.
7th Framework programme– full right Hungarian membership and participation Vital role in raising the share of R+D in constrained Hungarian national budget. The Hungarian scientific community is preparing itself for further successful participation. (Hungarian) National Development Plan II: involves R+D developments and (co)sources [Prof. Norbert KROÓ’s lecture at HAS today: Where to go European (Hungarian) Science?]
European Higher Education Area • European common actions (Bologna → Prag →Berlin → Bergen) are well known. ??? • Hungary’s participation: • from the beginning active role (Hungary signed the Bologna Declaration) • long domestic delay between 1999-2002 in the preparation and introduction • 1992: new government – broader reform programme in the higher education
Reform elements of the new HE law • frontal introduction of the new linear three-cycle system • changes of institutional management • changes in state functions • reforms in institutional budgeting • recognition of degrees and study periods • introduction of diploma supplement • development quality assurance systems • promotion of mobility • promotion of the European dimension • life long learning
a) frontal introduction of the new linear three-cycle system (B → M → PhD) • firstly delayed, then too rapid preparation • entire introduction (in 2005 or 2006) • exceptions: medical and law programmes • „more or less”: more renaming of old prog- rammes, less new concepts • uniform B-programmes, without different orientations (cf. Berlin Communiqué) • till today: nearly nothing about M-cycle • PhD fits well in European practice
Planned structure of higher education 6 semesters /180 credits Doctor degree PhD 4 semesters /120 credits Master degrees Undivided studies 6 semesters /180 (+30) credits Bachelor degrees 4 semesters / 120 credits „community colleges”
b) changes of institutional management • Separation of academic and management/ financial decisions: it is the „big deal” • Board (of Governors):the executive governing body. 7 external members: 5 elected by the Se-nate, 2 by the minister [9/6/3]. No politicians! • Rector: the chief executive officer. President of the Board. He has a general responsibility to the Board for the organisation, direction and mana-gement. Elected by the Board with 5+1 votes. • Senate: draws its membership entirely from the staff and the students* (*1/4 – 1/3). Issues rela-ting to the teaching, research and personnel.
c) changes in state functions • Minister of Education: • legal supervision of HEI-s • distribution of state funded places • legalisation of accreditation evaluations • allocation of development funds based on HEI’s development plans • Board (some rights from the Minister): • all institutional strategic decisions (some serious ones expected in the near future) • integration, merge, closing of institutions
d) reforms in institutional budget status • Components of normative (formula) funding: • number of student • research performance • maintenance costs • Special state-budget status: more flexible, less constrains • separate bank account and free use of institutional income (besides treasury) • activities mostly tax-free • own property besides state property
Further elements of the reform: • recognition of degrees and study periods • introduction of diploma supplement (new!) • development of quality assurance systems (Hung. Accr. Comm.is a good bases) • promotion of mobility • promotion of the European dimension (new!) • life long learning (a lot of second degrees) • public–private partnership developments (dormitories, infrastructure) • recruiting more fee paying foreign students
Foreign students in Hungary: to be increased (Campus Hungary) blue: total;red: English and German programmes
Summary: Hungary, like most of the new member states feels itself at home in the EU research and higher educational area. There are many things to do both in Hungary and in the EU for the most competitive Europe and the knowledge based society. Thank you for your kind attention!