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Job Analysis and Job Design. Chapter 4. Chapter Overview. Basic Terminology Job Analysis Job Design Summary of Learning Objectives. 4- 3. Basic Terminology.

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Basic Terminology
  • Job Analysis
  • Job Design
  • Summary of Learning Objectives


basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • Micromotions – Simplest unit of work; involves very elementary movement, such as reaching, grasping, positioning, or releasing an object
  • Elements – An aggregation of two or more micromotions; usually thought of as a complete entity, such as picking up or transporting an object
  • Tasks – Consists of one or more elements; one of the distinct activities that constitute logical and necessary steps in the performance of work by an employee
    • A task is performed whenever human effort, physical or mental, is exerted for a specific purpose


basic terminology1
Basic Terminology
  • Duties – One or more tasks performed in carrying out a job responsibility
  • Responsibilities – Obligations to perform certain tasks and assume certain duties
  • Positions – Collection of tasks and responsibilities constituting the total work assignment of a single employee
  • Jobs – Group of positions that are identical with respect to their major or significant tasks and responsibilities and sufficiently alike to justify their being covered by a single analysis
    • One or many persons may be employed in the same job
  • Occupations – A grouping of similar jobs or job classes


job analysis
Job Analysis
  • Process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job
    • Involves determining the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance
    • End product of a job analysis is a written description of actual requirements of job
    • When performing a job analysis, the job and its requirements (as opposed to characteristics of person currently holding the job) are studied
  • It is the beginning point of many human resource functions
    • Specifically, data obtained from job analysis form the basis for a variety of human resource activities


job analysis influencing human resource activities
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Job definition – Job analysis results in a description of duties and responsibilities of job
  • Job redesign – Job analysis often indicates when a job needs to be redesigned
  • Recruitment – Process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen
    • Job analysis not only identifies job requirements but also outlines skills needed to perform job
  • Selection and placement – Process of choosing from those available the individuals who are most likely to perform successfully in a job
    • Job analysis determines importance of different skills and abilities


job analysis influencing human resource activities1
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Orientation – Introduction of new employees to the organization, work unit, and job
    • Effective job orientation cannot be accomplished without clear understanding of job requirements
  • Training – Learning process that involves acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to increase employee performance
    • Job analysis helps in determining training requirements, establishing training objectives, and helps determine the reason of problem occurrence
  • Career counseling – Job analysis provides clarity on variety of jobs in the organization and clarifies exact job requirements


job analysis influencing human resource activities2
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Employee safety – Often uncovers unsafe practices and/or environmental conditions associated with a job
  • Performance appraisal – The objective of performance appraisal is to evaluate an individual employee’s performance on a job
    • Job analysis helps in understanding exactly what an employee is supposed to do
  • Compensation – Job analysis helps ensure that employees receive fair compensation for their jobs
    • Once worth of a job has been established relative to other jobs, the employer can determine an equitable wage or salary schedule


products of job analysis
Products of Job Analysis
  • Job description – Written synopsis of nature and requirements of a job
    • Concentrates on describing the job as it is currently being performed
    • Explains, in written form, what the job is called, what it requires to be done, where it is to be done, and how it is to be done
  • Job specification – Description of competency, educational, and experience qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform the job
    • Knowledge – Identifiable factual information necessary to perform job
    • Skills – Specific proficiencies necessary for performing tasks that make up the job
    • Abilities – General and enduring capabilities for doing the job
    • Other characteristics – Include any other pertinent characteristics not covered under knowledge, skills, and abilities


job description
Job Description
  • A potential problem with all job descriptions is that they may become outdated
    • Often, it is not periodically updated to reflect any changes that have occurred in the job
  • Jobholder and his or her supervisor should review the most current job description annually and determine whether description needs updating
    • If updating is required, jobholder should play a central role in revising it
  • In the initial development of a job description, jobholder should be involved


job analysis methods observation
Job Analysis Methods – Observation
  • Relatively simple and straightforward method of analyzing jobs; can be used independently or in conjunction with other methods
    • Motion study (methods study)
      • Determining motions and movements necessary for performing a task or job and designing most efficient methods for putting them together
    • Time study
      • Determines elements of work required to perform job, order in which those elements occur, and time required to perform them effectively
    • Work sampling
      • Based on taking statistical samples of job actions throughout the workday and then drawing inferences about requirements and demands of the job


drawbacks of the observation method
Drawbacks of the Observation Method
  • Observer must be carefully trained to know what to look for and what to record
    • Helpful to use a form with standard categories of information to be filled in as job is observed to ensure basic information is not omitted
  • Its application is somewhat limited to jobs involving short and repetitive cycles
    • Complicated jobs and jobs that do not have repetitive cycles require such lengthy observation periods that it becomes impractical
  • Direct observation, can be used to get a feel for a particular job and then combined with other methods to thoroughly analyze


job analysis methods interviews
Job Analysis Methods – Interviews
  • Requires that person conducting job analysis meet with and interview jobholder
    • Unstructured interviews – Have no definite checklist or preplanned format; format develops as interview unfolds
    • Structured interview – Follows a predesigned format
      • Ensures that all pertinent aspects of job are covered
      • Easier to compare information obtained from different people holding the same job
  • Major drawback
    • Can be extremely time-consuming; compounded when several people are interviewed about the same job


job analysis methods questionnaires
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Typically three to five pages long and contain both objective and open-ended questions
    • For existing jobs – Incumbent completes questionnaire, has it checked by immediate manager, and returns it to job analyst
    • For new jobs – Questionnaire is normally sent to manager supervising the employee in the new job
    • Job being analyzed is vacant but is duplicated in another part of the organization – Questionnaire is completed by incumbent in the duplicate job
  • Information can be obtained from large number of employees in a relatively short time period
    • Used when large input is needed and time and cost are limiting factors


job analysis methods questionnaires1
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Major Disadvantages of Questionnaire Method
    • Misinterpretation of information by respondent or analyst
    • Time-consuming and expensive to develop
  • A popular variation is to have incumbent write an actual description of the job, subject to approval of immediate supervisor
    • Advantage
      • Incumbent is often the person most knowledgeable about the job
      • Helps to identify any differences in incumbent’s and manager’s perceptions about job


job analysis methods questionnaires2
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) – Highly specialized instrument for analyzing any job in terms of employee activities
    • Uses six major categories of employee activities
    • Total of 194 descriptors, called job elements, describe the six categories in detail
    • Using a five-point scale, one can analyze each description for the degree to which it applies to the job
  • Primary advantage
    • Can be used to analyze almost any type of job
    • It is relatively easy to use
  • Major disadvantage
    • The sheer length of questionnaire


job analysis methods questionnaires3
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) – Highly structured questionnaire designed specifically for analyzing managerial jobs
    • Contains 208 items relating to managerial responsibilities, restrictions, demands, and other miscellaneous position characteristics
    • These items are grouped under the 13 categories
    • Requires analyst to check whether each item is appropriate to job being analyzed


job analysis methods functional job analysis
Job Analysis Methods – Functional Job Analysis
  • Developed by Employment and Training Administration of Department of Labor
    • Uses standardized statements and terminology to describe content of jobs
    • Collects detailed task statements and rates them according to function level or function orientation
      • Function level – Describes how an employee interacts with data, people, and things
      • Function orientation – Describes amount of time (in percentages) employees spends on tasks of each functional level
    • Each task statement is analyzed and rated to determine skills needed to perform task it describes
    • Results in position-specific information about work being performed and standardized information about both work and person performing the work


occupational information network o net
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), that described over 12,000 jobs became obsolete and inefficient in early 1990s
    • Provided very job specific and dated information in many cases
    • Did not provide for any type of cross-job comparisons for job similarities and differences
    • Did not directly identify what characteristics employees needed to perform the job or under what conditions job was performed
  • To overcome these problems, the U.S. Department of Labor developed a new system called the occupational information network (O*NET)
    • United States’ primary source of occupational information


occupational information network o net1
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
  • O*NET database – Comprehensive online database of employee attributes and job characteristics
    • Provides definitions and concepts for describing employee attributes and workplace requirements that can be broadly understood
    • Using comprehensive terms to describe KSAs, it can accommodate rapidly changing job requirements
    • Continually updated by surveying a broad range of employees from each occupation – Done every five years
    • Content model – Encapsulates key features of an occupation into a standardized, measurable set of variables called “descriptors”
  • O*NET-SOC taxonomy – Identifies existing work occupations
    • Includes 949 occupational titles, 812 of which have data collected from job incumbents or occupation experts


the ada and job analysis
The ADA and Job Analysis
  • “Qualified individuals with disabilities” – Persons who have a disability and meet the skill, education, experience, and other job-related requirements of position held or desired and can perform essential functions of the position with or without reasonable accommodation
    • Requires identification of essential functions of each job and a reasonable accommodation to disabilities of qualified individual
  • Essential job function – One that is fundamental to successful performance of the job
  • Marginal job functions may be performed at certain times but are incidental to main purpose of the job
    • A job function is considered marginal if its performance is a matter of convenience and not a necessity


the ada and job analysis1
The ADA and Job Analysis
  • Reasonable accommodation means the employer may be required to alter conditions of a particular job so as to enable the candidate to perform all essential functions
  • An employer cannot be required to make an accommodation that causes undue hardship for the employer
  • Undue hardship refers to any accommodation that
    • Would be unduly costly, substantial or disruptive
    • Would fundamentally alter the nature or operation of business


potential problems with job analysis
Potential Problems with Job Analysis
  • Top management support is missing
  • Only a single means and source are used for gathering data
  • Supervisor and jobholder do not participate in design of job analysis procedure
  • No training or motivation exists for jobholders
  • Employees are not allowed sufficient time to complete the analysis
  • Activities may be distorted
  • Participants fail to critique the job


job design
Job Design
  • Process of structuring work and designating specific work activities of an individual or group of individuals to achieve certain organizational objectives
  • Job design process are divided into these phases
    • Specification of individual tasks – What different tasks must be performed?
    • Specification of the method of performing each task – Specifically, how will each task be performed?
    • Combination of individual tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals – How will the different tasks be grouped to form jobs?
  • Phases 1, 3 determine content of job
  • Phase 2 indicates precisely how job is to be performed


job design1
Job Design
  • Goal of job design – Develop work assignments that meet requirements of the organization and technology, and that satisfy personal and individual requirements of jobholder
    • Key to successful job design is to balance requirements of organization and jobholder
  • Prevailing practice in designing jobs was to focus almost entirely on simplifying tasks to be undertaken
    • Usually resulted in making jobs as specialized as possible
    • Job specialization has its advantages, but can result in boredom and even degradation of jobholder


job scope and job depth
Job Scope and Job Depth
  • Job scope – Number and variety of tasks performed by jobholder
    • In a job with narrow scope, jobholder performs a few different task and repeats them frequently
    • Can result in more errors and lower quality
  • Job depth – Freedom of jobholders to plan and organize their own work, work at their own pace, and move around and communicate
    • Its lack can create job dissatisfaction, tardiness, absenteeism, and even sabotage
  • A job can be high in job scope and low in job depth, or vice versa


sociotechnical approach to job design
Sociotechnical Approach to Job Design
  • Its thrust is that both the technical system and the accompanying social system should be considered when designing jobs
    • Jobs need to be designed by taking a holistic, or systems, view of the entire job situation, including its physical and social environment
    • The approach is situational
  • Requires job designer to consider role of employees in the sociotechnical system, nature of tasks performed, and autonomy of work group
  • Has been applied in many countries under headings such as “autonomous work groups,” “Japanese-style work groups,” or employee involvement (EI) teams


using sociotechnical approach to create guidelines to designing jobs
Using Sociotechnical Approach to Create Guidelines to Designing Jobs
  • Job needs to be reasonably demanding for the individual in terms other than sheer endurance, yet provide some variety (not necessarily novelty)
  • Employees need to be able to learn on the job and to continue learning
  • Employees need some minimum area of decision making that they can call their own
  • Employees need some minimal degree of social support and recognition in the workplace
  • Employees need to be able to relate what they do and what they produce to their social lives
  • Employees need to believe that the job leads to some sort of desirable future


the physical work environment
The Physical Work Environment
  • The physical work environment should allow for normal lighting, temperature, ventilation, and humidity
    • Baffles acoustical wall materials, sound absorbers, soothing colors, limiting exposure to less-than-ideal physical conditions to short periods are measures employers can take
  • Mental and psychological impacts of work environment to be considered when designing jobs
  • Implementation of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in 1970 magnified safety concerns
    • Specifies federal safety guidelines that all organizations in United States must follow


  • Allows employees to choose, within certain limits, when they start and end their workday
    • Organization defines a core period
    • Some allow varied hours worked each day, as long as a specified weekly total is met
    • Advantages
      • Allows employees to accommodate different lifestyles and schedules
      • Allows employees to avoid rush hours, having less absenteeism and tardiness
      • Allows employers an edge in recruiting new employees and in retaining hard-to-find qualified employees
      • May result in an increase in productivity
    • Disadvantages
      • Can create communication and coordination problems for supervisors and managers


  • The practice of working at home or while traveling and being able to interact with the office
    • Information technology has aided its spurt
    • Advantages
      • Less travel time and travel expenses, avoiding rush hour
      • Avoiding distractions at office
      • Being able to work flexible hours
    • Disadvantages
      • Insurance concerns relating to health and safety of employees working at home
      • Lack of professional and social environment of workplace
      • Some state and local laws restrict just what work can be done at home
    • Recent evidence shows that when given a choice, employees prefer a mix of working part-time from home and part-time in office


job sharing
Job Sharing
  • Two or more part-time individuals perform a job that would normally be held by one full-time person
    • Can be in the form of equally shared responsibilities, split duties, or a combination of both
    • Especially attractive to people who want to work, but not full-time
    • From organization’s viewpoint, job sharing aids in retention of valuable employees
    • A critical factor is how benefits are handled – Often benefits are prorated between part-time employees
    • Some organizations allow job-sharing employees to purchase full health insurance by paying the difference between their prorated benefit and the premium for a full-time employee


condensed workweek
Condensed Workweek
  • Number of hours worked per day is increased and number of days in the workweek is decreased
    • Typically done by having employees work 10 hours per day for four days per week (known as 4/40)
    • Other variations include reducing total hours worked to 36 or 38 hours
    • Advantages
      • Lower absenteeism and tardiness
      • Less start-up time
      • More time available for employees to take care of personal business
    • Disadvantages
      • Fatigue that often accompanies longer hours


contingent workers
Contingent Workers
  • The U.S. Labor Department’s Bureau of Labor Statistics separates contingent workers into
    • Independent contractors and on-call workers, who are called to work only when needed
    • Temporary or short-term workers
  • Reasons that organizations use contingent workers include
    • Seasonal fluctuations, and project-based work
    • Desire to acquire skill sets not available in the normal employee
    • Population, hiring freezes, and rapid growth
  • Advantages
    • Flexibility for dealing with fluctuating product or service demand
    • Increasing workplace diversity
    • Determining potential as a future full-time employee
    • Providing skills organization doesn’t have in-house


contingent workers challenges
Contingent Workers – Challenges
  • Management issues
    • Who manages different contingent workers and what role does HR play?
  • Tracking and reporting
    • How do contingents fit into different HR system such as payroll?
  • Compensation
    • How are contingents compensated compared to other employees?
  • Retention
    • Since most contingents don’t receive benefits they can be hard to retain
  • Attitude and work quality
    • Most contingents do not share same degree of commitment as other employees


contingent workers challenges1
Contingent Workers – Challenges
  • Orientation and training
    • Orientation and training can be difficult to schedule because of scheduling conflicts with other jobs
  • Legal issues
    • Contingent workers must meet legal definition of “independent contractor” under IRS rules
  • Use or company resources
    • Can include everything from company discounts to participation in company educational programs
  • Physical security
    • Do contingent workers have same access to company facilities as other employees?


summary of learning objectives
Summary of Learning Objectives
  • Define job analysis and job design
  • Distinguish among a position, a job, and an occupation
  • Describe several common uses of a job analysis
  • Define job description and job specification
  • Identify four frequently used methods of job analysis
  • Discuss why O*NET was developed and summarize what it is
  • Define essential functions and reasonable accommodation as interpreted under the Americans with Disabilities Act


summary of learning objectives1
Summary of Learning Objectives
  • Identify several problems frequently associated with job analysis
  • Define job scope and job depth and explain their relationship to job design
  • Explain the sociotechnical approach to job design
  • Distinguish among the following types of alternative work schedules: flextime, telecommuting, job sharing, and condensed workweek
  • Define the term contingent worker