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Job Analysis and Job Design
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  1. Job Analysis and Job Design Lecture 3 Chapter 5

  2. Objectives • Explain job analysis and design • To understand the uses of job analysis • Describe the content & format of a job description & specification • Discuss the collection of job analysis data & job analysis techniques • Discuss competency profiling • Understand the major methods of job design

  3. Job requirements & SHRM • Jobs consist of a group of related duties and tasks in a branch or department • Each job is linked to other jobs, within other sections, branches or departments • Together, they contribute to overall organisational performance

  4. Harvard business review 1999

  5. Job Analysis A systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job and the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities a person needs to perform the job adequately • Components • Job content • Job requirements • Job context

  6. Steps in Job Analysis

  7. The uses of Job Analysis • Job description • Explains the purpose of a job, what activities are performed, the conditions under which they are accomplished and the performance standards

  8. The uses of Job Analysis • Job specification • Formal qualifications, knowledge, abilities, skills and personal characteristics needed to get the job done

  9. The uses of Job Analysis • Job design • Identifies what must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will perform it.

  10. The uses of Job Analysis • Person specification • Reflect the necessary skills, experience & personal qualities that suggest the successful job holder is competent.

  11. Job Analysis • Approaches • A job orientated or task approach • An employee orientated (Behavioural approach • When to do • When the organisation commences • When a new job is created • When a job is changed significantly

  12. Writing a job description Dial-Up Broadband Rhonda Earl – HR Director – Cancer Council Queensland

  13. Job Descriptions • Job identification • Job objective • Duties and responsibilities • Relationships • Knowledge • Problem solving • Authority • Accountability • Special circumstances • Performance standards • Trade union m’ship • Other requirements

  14. Job Specification • Experience • Skills, abilities and knowledge • Personal characteristics • Special requirements • Ideal industry background • Ideal current organisation • Ideal current position • Route up • Remuneration

  15. Job analysis guidelines • Joint effort • Data collection • Understand the job context • Ensure clarity of questions and surveys • Observe & question early in the process

  16. Collection of job analysis information • Observation • Interviews • Job analysis questionnaire • Diaries/logs • Critical incident reports • Using a combination of data collection methods

  17. Competency profiling • A job analysis method that focuses on the skills and behaviours needed to perform a job successfully • Characteristics • Motives Traits • Self concept Knowledge • Skills

  18. Competency profiling

  19. Central and surface competencies

  20. The Organisational Iceberg Artefacts Visible symbols, behaviours , rules & policies Logic, objectivity ValuesInvisible rules below the surface . Emotions Feelings, Needs Assumptions Well below the surface - cause values & artefacts Rationality Less Rationality or irrationality From Shani & Lau (1996) Behaviour in Organisations. Pub. Irwin

  21. Criticisms of competency profiling • The ambiguous meaning of competency • Its generic ‘off-the-shelf’ nature • Its focus on the past rather than the present • The emphasis on ‘technical’ competencies • The assumption of rationality

  22. Practical problems with job analysis • Lack of top management support • Use of only one method • Use of single source of data only • Lack of participation of all stakeholders • Lack of training of the analyst

  23. Practical problems with job analysis • Employees’ lack of awareness of importance • Process seen as a threat to employee • Lack of reward for providing quality information • Insufficient time allowed for the process • Intentional or unintentional distortion • Absence of a review

  24. Methods of job design • Job specialisation or simplification • Job enlargement • Job rotation • Job enrichment • Socio-technical enrichment • Autonomous work teams

  25. Job Characteristics Model(Hackman & Oldham 1976, 1980) Task Characteristics Critical Psychological States Experience of Meaningfulness Responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of results Outcomes Internal motivation Work Performance Commitment Satisfaction Skill Variety Task Identity & Significance Autonomy Feedback Absenteeism & Turnover Growth Need strength Context

  26. Quality of work life • Involves mplementing HRM policies & practices to promote organisational performance & employee wellbeing,includes: • Management style • Freedom to make decisions • Pay and benefits • Working conditions • Safety • Meaningful work.

  27. Criteria for improving QWL • Criteria can include: • Adequate remuneration • Safe and healthy environment • Development of human capabilities • Growth and security • Constitutionalism.

  28. Summary A proper match between work & employee capability is an economic necessity Work itself is in a constant state of flux Changes affect how work is performed & the skills, knowledge & attitudes workers require HR managers to understand the work & how work is organised