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Job and Role Analysis and Design. Key concepts and terms. Job Job analysis Job description Job design Job enlargement. Job enrichment Job rotation Role Role analysis Role profile. After completion of this topic you should be able to Describe the distinction between jobs and roles

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key concepts and terms
Key concepts and terms
  • Job
  • Job analysis
  • Job description
  • Job design
  • Job enlargement
  • Job enrichment
  • Job rotation
  • Role
  • Role analysis
  • Role profile
learning outcomes

After completion of this topic you should be able to

  • Describe the distinction between jobs and roles
  • Explain job and role methodology
  • Produce job description and role profile
Learning outcomes

Job Analysis

Job Description and

Job Specification


and Selection




Learning and


job and role


  • an organizational unit
  • a group of defined tasks to be carried out
  • duties to be performed
  • part played by individuals
  • patterns of behavior
  • expected in fulfilling work requirements
Job and Role
job analysis

Overall purpose



Criteria for the job evaluation

Job analysis
steps in job analysis

Obtain documents which give information about the job

  • Obtain from managers fundamental information concerning the job
  • Obtain from job holders similar information about their jobs.
Steps in Job Analysis

Methods of collecting job analysis information

  • Quantitative
  • Position Analysis
  • Questionnaire (PAQ)
  • - Functional Job
  • Analysis
  • Qualitative
  • Interview
  • Questionnaire
  • Observation
  • Diary/logs

Types of job analysis interview


(with each employee)


(with supervisor who knows the job)


(with group of employee

who have the same job)


Job analysis interviews

  • Cons
  • distortion of information due to falsification or misunderstanding
  • …………
  • Pros
  • simple and quick way to collect information;
  • collect information that might never appear on a written form;
  • collect occasional and informal information;
  • provides opportunity to explain
  • - ………..






  • Pros
  • quick and effective
  • for a large number of employees;
  • less costly than interviews
  • ……………..
  • Cons
  • developing and testing can be expensive and time consuming
  • ……………..

Direct Observation

  • Cons
  • not appropriate for mental activity
  • ………………..
  • Pros
  • very useful for physical activities
  • ……………….

Participant Diary / Logs

  • Pros
  • produces very complete and detailed picture of job
  • …………………
  • Cons
  • not reliable if completed at the end of the day
  • ……………
quantitative job analysis techniques

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

  • Department of Labor (DOL) approach
  • Functional job analysis
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

  • developed by Dr. Ernest J., McCormick (1972)
  • is a structured job analysis questionnaire containing 194 items (job elements)
  • Five categories:
  • 1.Information input
  • 2. Mental processes
  • 3. Work output
  • 4. Relationships with other persons,
  • 5. Job context

Job Descriptions

  • Job identification
  • 2. Job summary
  • 3. Responsibilities and duties
  • 4. Authority
  • 5. Standards of performance
  • 6. Working conditions
  • 7. Job specifications


  • Basic contents :
  • Personal characteristics
  • Physical characteristics
  • Mental characteristics
  • Social and psychological characteristics

Professional standards

Profesiju standarti - Izglītības tematiskās jomas – Komerczinības un administrēšana

Job description

how to deal with highly repetitive and specialized job

Job enlargement – assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.

Job rotation – systematically moving workers from one job to another

How to deal with highly repetitive and specialized job?
how to deal with highly repetitive and specialized job cont

Job enrichment – redesigning jobs in a way

that increases the opportunities for the worker

to experience feelings of responsibility,

achievement, growth, and recognition.

How to deal with highly repetitive and specialized job? (cont.)
the contemporary trends

De-jobbing - replacing fixed jobs with tasks performed by teams.

Factors responsible

  • External:
    • Rapid product and technological change;
    • Global competition;
    • Political instability;
    • Demographic changes;
    • Rise of a service economy
  • Internal:
    • Flatter organisations
    • Work teams
    • Re-engineering
The contemporary trends

Job Analysis


1. What items are typically included in the job description?

2. How can you use the information which job analysis


3. What are methods of collecting job analysis data?

Describe pros and cons of these methods.

4. What information is found in job specifications?

5. Explain how you would conduct a job analysis.

6. Do you think companies can really do without

detailed job descriptions? Why or why not?

7. In a company with only 25 employees, is there less need

for job descriptions for the employees of the company?

Why or why not?