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What is Managing Diversity? Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for Promotion Roleplay PowerPoint Presentation
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What is Managing Diversity? Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for Promotion Roleplay

What is Managing Diversity? Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for Promotion Roleplay

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What is Managing Diversity? Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for Promotion Roleplay

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  1. Managing Diversity Initiatives • What is Managing Diversity? • Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for • Promotion Roleplay

  2. Types of Diversity Initiatives • Managing Diversity • Change organizational structure, policies, norms & practices (e.g., hiring) to create fairness • Similar to strategies to reducing discrimination (See Stephan & Stephan ch. 2) • Valuing Diversity • Change employee attitudes and behaviors by • Emphasis on equality/fairness values • Providing training on awareness & skills • Similar to strategies on reducing stereotyping & prejudice (See Stephan & Stephan ch 2)

  3. Examples of Managing Diversity • Change structure by changing membership in the organization across all levels via • Recruitment & hiring (e.g., offer benefit packages appealing to minorities so they would accept jobs in org and stay) • E.g., elder care & child care for sandwich generation, for people with different values toward aging parents • Promotion (e.g., Ensure minority representation on internal committees so they would progress to higher levels of org) • E.g., to make decisions on purchasing benefit policies

  4. Examples of Managing Diversity • Change structure by changing membership in the organization across all levels via • Compensation for diversity-based performance (Cox) • Grievance procedure • Encouraging communication across & within all levels (e.g., Carnevale & Stone) • Be more flexible in social norms (e.g., Carnevale & Stone)

  5. Examples of Managing Diversity • Sponsor caucus, advisory & support groups for different groups • e.g., student groups at universities • Create career development programs for minorities & women • e.g., mentoring • Community outreach to enhance organization’s image and attract minority applicants, customers • E.g., IBM’s Aboriginal initiative

  6. Managing Diversity Initiatives • Examples of Managing Diversity Initiatives • Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for

  7. Individuals’ Resistance to Diversity Initiatives • Mandatory nature • Positive (e.g., rated as more successful, Rynes & Rosen, 95) • Negative= less popular • Change is experienced as threatening, provokes anxiety, resentment, hostility (Stephan & Stephan Ch 2) • Can be possibly overcome with training (see Valuing Diversity initiatives) • Perception of demographic change in org composition as zero-sum game (see also Plous)

  8. Organizational Barriers to Diversity Initiatives • Traditional hierarchical structures • Standardized procedures, conformity norms • Selection & promotion based on ‘fit’ • Remember Brief et al article! • Informal networks of communication that exclude visible minorities • Token representation of VMs as sufficient justification for not implementing Diversity Initiatives • Limited time for change to occur Connect to Plous arguments

  9. Managing Diversity Initiatives • What is Managing Diversity? • Examples of Managing Diversity Initiatives • Some discussion of how it is different from Valuing Difference Initiatives • Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for • Individual & Organizational Barriers • Put it to practice: Promotion Role Play

  10. Types of Diversity Initiatives • Managing Diversity • Change organizational structure, policies, norms & practices (e.g., hiring) to create fairness • Similar to strategies to reducing discrimination (See Stephan & Stephan ch. 2) • Valuing Diversity • Change employee attitudes and behaviors by • Emphasis on equality/fairness values • Providing training on awareness & skills • Similar to strategies on reducing stereotyping & prejudice (See Stephan & Stephan ch 2)

  11. Valuing Diversity • Org emphasizes fairness/equality values • Via mission statement, sponsoring equity endevours etc. • Provides diversity training to • Increase awareness (sensitivity) • Cultural & historical information about groups • Know about, and counteract stereotypes • E.g., Board games • Improve skills • Interpersonal, conflict management, language skills, mentoring • Change attitudes & feelings • Hardest to do

  12. Types of Diversity Training • What is culture? • Beliefs, norms, customs, knowledge, habits of a group • See “What are transparent aspects of culture” in cultural circles) • Why is learning about cultural differences important for diversity training? • Increases awareness of role of culture in social behaviors (e.g., choice of partner; amount of eye-contact) • Awareness can increase accepting which can improve interactions between people of different cultural groups

  13. Goals of Diversity Training Exercises • Increase cultural identity • E.g., Pie chart, Backgrounds, Cultural circles • Highlight differences in communication styles • E.g., Bafa Bafa • Inter cultural conflict resolution • E.g., Owl sensitivity • Interpersonal stereotyping • E.g., Diversity and perception, Car radio etc. • Group stereotyping • E.g., Gender & language, Cross-gender role-play • Understand power differences & gain empathy • E.g., Disability Exercise

  14. Identifying goals of an example training exercise • What are goals of the online-discussion group in a class? • Highlight differences in communication styles • Of People’s preference for communicating orally vs. online • Inter cultural conflict resolution • Increase cultural identity • Learn about each other’s culture • Interpersonal stereotyping • E.g., Bec. you are muscular you must be athletic • Group stereotyping • E.g., Bec. you are Chinese you must be conservative • Gain gain empathy • For people who are too shy to speak out in class

  15. Evaluation of Diversity Training Programs • Tansik & Driskill 1977 • 20 hrs of lectures, case studies, role-playing • Small changes right after, positive changes 5 weeks after, negative attitudes 12 weeks after • Sorcher & Spence 1982 • 10 week prog of watching videotapes of effective behaviors, role playing with reinforcement • No changes immediately or 6 weeks after, but positive changes 20 weeks after

  16. Evaluation of Diversity Training Programs • Dunnette & Motowildo (1982) • 3-days of small group discussions, readings, seminars, videos on sexist attitudes & behaviors • No changes for men, but positive changes for women • Alderfer (1992) • Upward mobility program, balanced composition of promotion committees, workshop had lectures, role-plays and experiential activities • Increases in minorities in management ranks • Dominant group members evaluated program more negatively than minority group members

  17. Evaluation of Diversity Training Programs • Ellis & Sonnenfield (1994) • 1 day of watching videos of culturally insensitive behaviors and discussing them • 59% evaluated seminar positively • Tan, Morris, & Romero (1996) • 3 days of case studies, simulations, videos, discussions • Increased knowledge of • diversity issues • barriers to change • sensitization to and knowledge of how to prevent negative effects of prejudice & stereotypes

  18. Evaluation of Diversity Training Programs • Hanover & Cellar 1998 • Videos, role playing, examination of diversity practices, action planning • Increased ratings on diversity practice measures (e.g., open discussions of group differences, discouraging comments perpetuating stereotypes) • Rynes & Rosen 1995 • 33% of HR managers surveyed rated diversity programs as successful but 18% rated them as unsuccessful • Mandatory prog were rated as more successful

  19. Evaluation of Diversity Training Programs • Layng 1998 • Analysis of commonly used video in diversity training programs • Introduced new stereotypes to replace old ones • Too much focus on incompetence of White male managers can alienate intended audience • Suggests that diversity leads to communication problems

  20. Why such few Evaluations of Training Programs • Trainers do not like sharing techniques • Trainers do not know evaluation techniques • Evaluation requires time and money • Some evaluations take more time away from trainees’ jobs, are resisted by organizations • Showing no change (or negative change) is disadvantageous to trainer

  21. Challenge for Diversity Trainers • Changing established norms & practices of adults in organizations is difficult • Limited time for change to occur • Teach legal & inter group aspects of diversity • Participants are resistant to change

  22. Issues to Consider for Diversity Training • Include • Majority and minority members • Members from all organizational ranks • Diverse trainers on teams • Emphasize similarity & differences within groups • E.g., cultural circles • Know legal issues • E.g., discrimination scenarios exercise

  23. Issues to Consider for Diversity Training • Anticipate • Conflict between majority & minority groups • Resentment from dominant groups • Negative reactions re: slow pace of change from minorities • Avoid displays of favoritism • Present diversity policies in ways palatable to all participants • E.g., business case

  24. Issues to Consider for Diversity Training • Focus on training skills bec. employers are legally responsible for employee behaviors • Cover a broad range of groups • Attend to trainees • Inter group relations • Age, status, strength of ethnic identities • Similar to strategies to reduce negative intergroup contact

  25. Issues to Consider for Diversity Training • Decide on how to confront • Prevalent organizational values • Value differences between groups • Be thoroughly prepared

  26. Resistance to Diversity Initiatives Individual Barriers • Majority members may feel additionally threatened (as being attacked) • Minority members may feel uncomfortable when focus of attention during training

  27. Resistance to Diversity Initiatives Individual Barriers • Mandatory nature can be positive and negative • People who need it most get it but popularity may be reduced • Change is experienced as threatening, provokes anxiety, resentment, hostility

  28. Managing Diversity Initiatives • What is Managing Diversity? • Nature of Resistance to anticipate and plan for • Promotion Roleplay