Managing IT: Planning and Implementing Change. Chapter Objectives. How end user resistance to changes in business processes or IT can be minimized by end user involvement in the systems development and implementation process.
Planning and Implementing Change
Structure & process
People & culture
Tactical IS Planning - evaluates current and projected information needs of the organization, prioritizes IS development projects, and develops allocation plans for financial and technology resources.
Operational IS Planning - develops plans such as annual operating budgets and individual IS project plans.
Implementation activities are needed to transform a newly
developed information system into a operational system for
To build a strong, new culture that:
Roles, Roles and Relationships
as the Delivery Process
Success Factor Profile
1. The primary job of a CEO is the long term viability of the business.
2. Vision can be the key to business leadership.
3. Vision without action is poverty-stricken poetry.
4. Action without vision is stumbling in the dark.
1. How important is it for a company to have a well understood vision?
2. Is there something unique about a visionary executive?
3. What factors influence the creation of a vision?
4. What are the logical time dimensions of a business vision?
5. What major challenges frequently accompany establishing a new vision within a company?
Motivates people as to what the company is trying to change.
Provides a continuing focus.
Provides a yardstick for measuring progress.A Good Business Vision
To be recognized as the best airline in the industry by our customers, employees and
Our vision is for Delta to be the worldwide airline of
We will provide our customers access to the world,
and we will be an innovative, aggressive, ethical and
successful competitor committed to profitability and
superior customer service.
Looking ahead, we will consider opportunities to
expand through new routes and alliances.
1.Establish a clear vision of the future.
2. Provide a basis for sharing values and views (the vision).
3. Send a message regarding the importance of the vision process throughout the entire organization to gain consensus and momentum.
Change is a significant alteration or disruption in peoples’ expectation patterns.
Like it or not, people are creatures of habit.
We live in a world of change, yet we act on the
basis of continuity.
Provides safety and security
We like to plan on the basis that present conditions will continue.
It disturbs us
We avoid it
We often resist it
Managing the process of implementing major
changes in IT, business processes, organizational
structures, and job assignments to reduce the risks
and costs of change, and to optimize its benefits.
A commitment from top management and an organizational design to plan the future of IT and IS within the business.
Change management involves analyzing and defining all changes facing the organization, and developing programs to reduce the risks and costs, and to maximize the benefits of change.
Dealing with end user resistance:
- Proper education and training.
- Direct end user participation before implementation helps insure that the end users assume ownership of a system, and that its design meets their needs.
Human resource management handles:
Activities - Such as developing innovative ways to measure, motivate, and reward performance.
Program - Design a way to recruit and train employees in the core competencies required in a changing workplace.
Fast paced change has frequently become essential for a business to remain efficient in its operations and/or to remain competitive.
Change management has become fundamental to running a successful business.
1. Why is change management an important
aspects to running a successful business?
2. Identify key factors that would enable an
organization to successfully implement a major
new information system.
Time compression: information and communications
Turbulence: political and cultural
Interdependence: one economic and social world
Technology advances: rapid pace of product change and its impact on other areas.
Business pressures: time to market, time to develop and manufacture and time to decisions.
Change is natural and to be expected.
Continuity is unnatural and to be suspected.
TacticsInformation Systems Planning
What is happening in our industry and related industries?
What makes us special? What must be done to remain so?
Who are our competitors and business partners?
What type of organization and style of management do we want to have?
What role should IT logically plan in our future?
Architecture is determining the needs of the user and then designing and building systems to meet those needs as effectively as possible within economic and technological constraints.
1. Involves explicit ways to depict what you are trying to accomplish so that multiple people can create around the same baseline.
2. A top down approach to systems design that minimizes risk by reducing erroneous assumptions.
3. Quality expectations also force a higher level representation.
External data banks
store and provide data and information for business processes and managerial decision support.Data Resources
Interorganizational business linkages
Managerial decision making
End user computing and collaboration
Strategic initiatives for competitive advantageApplication Portfolio
Business/IT strategies that were formulated during the strategic planning processIT Organization
I/S Implementation Plan
“Developing a cohesive IT architecture to guide multiple IT development projects is one of the key products of strategic IT planning. Without such an architecture, large IT development projects may produce massive “inconsistencies and incompatibilities” and poor performance in information systems designed to work together.”
~By Author of the book
Developing a cohesive IT architecture to guide multiple IT development projects is one of the key products of strategic IT planning.
Without such an architecture, large IT development projects may produce massive “inconsistencies and incompatibilities” and poor performance in information systems designed to work together.
James A. O’Brien
Textbook, Page 616
As technology enables powerful distributed systems in small packages to remote locations, some kind of structure is needed because without it you will have distributed chaos.
There is no single architectural representation to build complex engineered products.
There are different ways to describe the same thing depending on a person’s position and responsibilities within an organization.
Executives view things differently than programmers.
Is it possible to build complex systems based only on functional specifications--what you want the system to accomplish?
Do owners (managers), designers (systems analysts) and builders (software developers) have the same perspectives, motivations, constraints and semantics regarding information systems architecture?
1. Reduce erroneous assumptions.
2. Minimize risk.
By systematically developing a way to design and build complex engineered systems.
The final step of the systems development
process: the conversion to a live system
doing real work within the company.
The challenge is to accomplish this in the most efficient, least disruptive but cost-effective manner possible.
“IT increasingly changes jobs, skill needs, and
relationships. Technical change has become
synonymous with organizational change. Such
change can be complex, painful, and disruptive.
The people side of IT is often more difficult to
anticipate and manage smoothly than is the
Author and IT Visionary
Evaluate and acquire necessary hardware and software
resources and information systems services. Screen vendor
The firm can evaluate a companies product or service by
submitting a RFP (request for proposal) or a RFQ (request for
Typically, large firms will put the proposal through a formal
evaluation process. This helps to reduce the possibility of
buying unnecessary or inadequate computer hardware or
Either deals with the internal development of application software or the acquisition of this software from vendors.
Parallel: both old and new systems are operated until IS team and management agrees to convert
Pilot: one department or work site serves as a tester.
Phased: only parts of the new system or only a few departments, offices, or plant locations at a time are converted
Plunge: direct abandonment of old system and conversion to new system.
IS implementation involves acquisition,
development, testing, documentation, training,
implementation, and conversion activities that
transform a newly designed information system
into an actual system for end users.
1. What is the biggest challenge in IS implementation? What can be done to make implementation easier to deal with?
2. What factors could dictate a “cold turkey” implementation approach?
For all of the reasons that we have discussed during this quarter, companies need and want IT-based solutions to their requirements and they want them quickly and economically.
In addition to hardware and software vendors there are an increasingly large number of companies that offer computer-based solutions in a number of different ways.
* Will be specifically addressed in this presentation
It is difficult, if not impossible, to make a clear distinction as to the difference between many of these companies.
A company that on a contract basis will design and implement a system for another company. This could be a completely new system or an integration of existing systems.
A typical description: A systems integrator and solutions provider specializing in full life cycle application development, testing, maintenance and project management utilizing relational and object technologies.
1. Have specific technical expertise and/or an industry
2. Focus on a specific part of the US or are national and
3. This also indicates that there are small, medium and
very large companies in this business.
The world’s largest computer services company.
Based on our classifications this operation can be called a consultant, a systems integrator, an application service provider and an outsourcer.
TASC, Inc., a division of Litton Industries and a leading information systems integrator, announced today that it has formed an alliance with Eigner + Partner, a pioneer in the development of engineering software products, to jointly provide Product Data Management (PDM) solutions to the aerospace and defense industries in North America. The alliance offers customers in these industries access to Eigner+Partner's world-class e-Engineering software and Litton TASC's best-of-practice implementation services.
Online Application Support
An international provider of financial and practice management products and solutions develops one of the only ASP dedicated exclusively to the legal industry.
ELF, currently used by more than half of the top 100 law firms in the United States, created a security-rich Web-based data center to help support legal applications and services via unprecedented single point access. The Web site, named Serengeti, offers a full range of solutions from the leading providers of legal software and services to help improve the handling of legal matters by leveraging the power of the
Online Purchasing Services
With giants such as Ariba Inc. and Commerce One Inc. dominating the high end of the E-procurement applications market, smaller vendors of online purchasing services are
targeting small and midsize businesses and gambling on alternative business models.
A logical definition of an ISP is that it provides basic Internet access, web hosting and related services and private networks for both data and voice.
While they may provide some application support the primary focus is providing Internet access and support.
1. What is a systems integrator and under what
circumstances would a company feel that it is
appropriate to use these services?
2. Contrast an ASP and a systems integrator with an
outsource company in terms of the basic objective of
each of these business models..
End User Involvement
End User Resistance
External IS Services
Information Systems Planning
Information Technology Architecture
Organizational Planning Concepts
Business System Planning
Critical Success Factors
Emerging leadership strategies