THE NATURE OF SPEAKING Joko Nurkamto UNS Solo
WHAT SPEAKERS DO • Speech production • Conceptualization and formulation • Articulation • Self-monitoring and repair • Automaticity • Fluency • Managing talk
SPEECH PRODUCTION • Linear • Utterance • Interlocutor • Contingent • Spontaneity
CONCEPTUALIZATION AND FORMULATION • Conceptualization • Formulation • Discourse script • Syntax • Topic • Comment • Add-on strategy
ARTICULATION Articulation involves the use of the organs of speech to produce sounds. A stream of air is produced in the lungs, driven through the vocal cords, and ‘shaped’ by, among other things, the position and movement of the tongue, teeth, and lips … At the same time as these articulatory processes are engaged, continual changes in loudness, pitch direction, tempo, and pausing serve to organize the sounds into meaningful word form, and the words into meaningful utterances…
SELF-MONITORING AND REPAIR Self-monitoring happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation, and articulation… A re-think at the planning stage may result in the abandonment of the message altogether, as when someone starts to gossip and realizes the subject of the gossip is within hearing distance!... Hand in hand with monitoring is the ability to make running repairs … Repair can take the form of an immediate correction or ‘retrace-and –repair’ sequences, that is, when the speaker retraces or ‘re-winds’ an utterance, and starts again, but with a different sequence of words or phrases…
AUTOMATICITY In order to achieve any degree of fluency, some degree of automaticity is necessary. It allows speakers to focus on their attention on the aspects of the speaking task … In this sense, speaking is like any other skill, such as driving or playing a musical instrument: the more practice you get, the better it is …
FLUENCY • Speed • Pausing • Placement of pauses • The length of run
MANAGING TALK • Interaction • Turn-taking • Paralinguistics
WHAT SPEAKERS KNOW • Linguistic knowledge • Psycholinguistic knowledge • Sociolinguistic knowledge • Discourse knowledge • Strategic knowledge
TYPES OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE A. Monologue 1. Planned 2. Unplanned B. Dialogue 1. Interpersonal a. Familiar b. Unfamiliar 2. Transactional a. Familiar b. unfamiliar
WHAT MAKES SPEAKING DIFFICULT? • Clustering • Redundancy • Reduced form • Performance variables • Colloquial language • Rate of delivery • Stress, rhythm, and intonation • Interaction
MICROSKILLS OF SPEAKING • Produce chunks of language of different length. • Orally produce differences among the English phonemes and allophonic variants. • Produce English stress patterns and intonational contours. • Produce reduced forms of words and phrases. • Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) to accomplish pragmatic purposes. • Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery. • Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices – pauses, fillers, self-correction, backtracking – to enhance the clarity of the message. • Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.), systems (tenses, agreement, etc), word order, etc • Produce speech in natural constituent – in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences.
MICROSKILLS OF SPEAKING 10. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms. 11. Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse. 12. Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to their contexts. 13. Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features. 14. Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, and generalization. 15. Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings. 16. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.