School Safety & the Integrated School Health Programme Presentation to the Select Committee on Education and Recreation 26 February 2014 Dr Shermain Mannah Dr Faith Kumalo Acting Chief Director Chief Director Social Inclusion & Partnerships Care & Support in Schools
Overview • Guiding Principles • Violence in South African Schools • Current evidence on school violence • Key Findings of the NSVS Study 2012 • DBE Response to School Safety • Ecological Model Explained • Current Programmes • Focus of the DBE-SAPS Protocol • Progress on implementation of the Protocol • Programmes in Progress • Integrating School Safety across the Curriculum & Teacher Development • Conclusion
Guiding Principles NDP & Action Plan 2014-Towards Vision 2015 Goal 10 ► Ensure learners remain effectively enrolled in school up to 15 years Goal 22 ► Improve parent and community participation in the governance of schools Goal 24 ► Ensure that the environment of every school inspires learners to want to come to school and learn, and teachers to teach
Current Evidence on Violence in Schools • Leverage on existing research and data- work closely with different institutions & departments, for example: South African Council of Educators (SACE), Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP), South African Human Rights Commission, Dept of Justice & Constitutional Development, Dept. of Social Development etc. • In 2008, CJCP conducted first baseline study on school violence and conducted a follow up study in 2012. • The 2008 study found that 22% of the secondary school learners surveyed had succumbed to some form of violence in the 12 months preceding the study.
Violence in South African Schools • The initial baseline study revealed most schools had similar safety and security challenges, which were grouped as follows: • Physical infrastructure and equipment • Safety and Security • Management and Governance • Partnership • The second NSVS study (2012) revealed that although violence is still high, it has remained constant (22.2% in 2012) • It provided data on the sites of violence, the hot-spots and gendered nature of sexual assault • This allows for targeted interventions and responses
Key Findings of the CJCP NSVS (2012) • The study sample comprised 5,939 learners, 121 principals and 239 educators. • In total, more than a fifth of learners had experienced violence at school. • 12.2% had been threatened with violence by someone at school • 6.3% had been assaulted • 4.7% had been sexually assaulted or raped • 4.5% had been robbed at school.
KEY FINDINGS CONT. • 20% scholars had experienced some form of cyber bullying violence in the past year. • Violence at schools was often not a once-off encounter. • Violence was not limited to incidents between learners • The classroom is the primary site of victimization • Educators were also often victims of verbal violence (52.1%), physical violence (12.4%) and sexual violence (3.3%) perpetrated by learners.
DBE Response to violence in schools The DBE response to school safety is underpinned by the following: • School violence is undergirded by a myriad of individual, school, family and broader community-level risk factors that coalesce to create vulnerability for violence. • Any attempt to curb violence occurring in schools needs to extend beyond the school itself. • Parental & Community support, including prevention and early intervention are the most reliable and cost-effective ways to support school safety
DBE Response to violence in schools The DBE uses an ecological model to address violence in schools
Current Programmes • School safety & the prevention of crime is a shared mandate, hence DBE collaborates with other relevant departments • In 2011 the DBE & SAPS signed a protocol to reduce crime and violence in schools and in communities • The Strategic Objective of this Protocol is to create Safe, Caring and Child Friendly Schools, and address incidents of crime and violence in a holistic and integrated manner
THE FOCUS OF THE DBE-SAPS PROTOCOL • To strengthen Safe School Committees in addressing crime and violence in schools as part of its mandate • To assume an active role as a member of Safe School Committees • To link all schools to local Police Stations • To raise awareness amongst children and young learners regarding crime and violence and its impact on individuals, families and education • To mobilize communities to take ownership of schools • To encourage the establishment of reporting systems at schools and, • To implement school-based crime prevention programmes in collaboration with provincial, district/local officials responsible for school safety
Progress on implementation of the Protocol • Thus far close to 15 000 schools linked to police stations have been verified by the DBE • School Safety Committees comprising of SGB members, educators and a police official will receive training this year on the implementation of the Protocol • The SAPS-DBE Protocol is being integrated into the DBE’s social cohesion programme • Community School Safety Dialogues with SAPS will be rolled out in the new financial year
Current Programmes Cont. • Developed training manuals for provincial and district officials, principals, school management teams, school governing bodies, teachers and learners on the Prevention and Management of Bullying, including cyber-bullying in schools. • Training was rolled out nationally last year and currently provinces have a total of 1387 master trainers • Specific effort have been made to include schools for learners with special needs • Provinces have submitted implementation plans for the roll out of training which will be monitored by the national office • Developed E-Safety Guidelines to address cyber-bullying & pamphlets on School Safety tips for parents and teachers, cyber & homophobic bullying & gangsterism and distributed to provinces electronically
In Progress • Developing an integrated and multi-disciplinary National School Safety Framework: including GBV, Drug & alcohol abuse etc. • Integrate school safety plans into local development & safety plans: School Safety Committees at the local level will work closely with Community Based Police Forums & other local crime prevention initiatives • Monitoring and Evaluation: The framework will be supported by a clear implementation roll out plan, standardized school safety indicatorsand accessible tools for schools. • Evidence-based prevention Strategy: develop a data base on school violence prevention initiatives which will be evidence-based and implement these best practices in targeted areas
Integrating Safety in Curriculum & Teacher Development Curriculum & Teacher Development: • Rights and Responsibilities: BOR & Teacher training manual • Values in Action Training manual • Gender Empowerment – Speak Out against Abuse • GEM/BEM Clubs • Sports for Development • Building Social Cohesion • Peer Education and Life skills • National Strategy on Prevention & Management of Alcohol and Drug use • School Governing Bodies & RCLs • Partnerships
Conclusion • Addressing violence cannot be solely addressed at one level. • Like the 2008 NSVS study, the 2012 NSVS highlighted the extent to which family and community factors intersect with the levels of violence occurring at schools. • School violence has deep societal origins. Thus, safe community and broader societal environments are prerequisites for safe schools. • Thus, any response geared towards creating a safe and supportive school environment needs to identify locally the risk and protective factors and put mechanisms in place to address these. School violence is a societal issue that requires a collaborative and whole school approach.
Outline of presentation • Background • Achievements • Challenges • Plans for 2014/15 FY • Best practices • Conclusion
Background • June 2009: Minister of BE reached agreement with Minister of Health to implement school health screening for Grade 1 learners in 2010 • health assessment package included screening for vision, hearing & oral health • 2009: Joint Task Team DBE & DOH formed. Implemented School Health Weeks March & October from 2010 • Feb 2011: Minister of BE requested extension of programme to: • all Grade 1 learners • learners repeating grades • referrals by educators and/or parents • Incrementally provide services to all learners
Background continued • August 2012 - ISHP Joint task team between DBE, DOH and DSD, overseen by the DDGs in DBE & DOH. Participation by NGOs & development partners • Strengths • High level political commitment • 11 October 2012: ISHP launched by President, Tshwane, GP: ‘ISHP a revolution?’ • March 2014: HPV vaccination to be launched, Mangaung, FS • SONA: School Health Services
Achievements: Inter-sectoralcollaboration National level • Regular TT meetings • Provide support to ISHP implementation at provincial level • Intergovernmental Protocol drafted • Guidelines for principals and service providers to engage with schools developed, training provided • (Draft) Guidelines for SGBs to consult on ISHP Provincial /district level • PTT in NC, WC, EC, KZN, MP, LP, FS • All provinces developed joint implementation plans for 2013/14; draft 2014/15
Support to Provinces • Interprovincial meetings held • 27-28 Feb 2012, 10-11 Apr 2013, 28-29 Jan 2014 • Extensive school level monitoring • Support for development of provincial implementation plans • Strengthening PTT, DTT • DBE provided 1897 scales, 2025 stadiometers, 14659 snellen charts (EU funding) • PEDs purchased screens, snellen charts, scales, stadiometers, duplication of reporting, consent forms through HIV & AIDS Life Skills Education Programme Conditional Grant • DOH purchased state-of-the art mobiles for 11 NHI pilot districts
Defined Target Group Screened once per educational phase: • Grade 1: early intervention • Grade 4: before onset of puberty (health education) • Grade 8: transition from primary to secondary school (increased risk behaviours) • Grade 10: Drop out increases–risk factor for early pregnancy & HIV • Learners repeating grades, & in special schools: identify health barriers to learning
Defined Health Services Package • Health screening (vision, hearing, nutritional status, TB) • onsite services (immunisation, minor ailments) • health education • environmental assessment For older learners SRH services (HCT, contraception incl. condoms, screening for STIs & pregnancy, education on MMC) NB: SRH services provided by a professional nurse, private & confidential
Human and other resources • Provincial Coordinators for DOH, DBE, some DSD • School health teams (RN & ENA-2 nurses, oral hygienist & health promoter) - norm: 1 school health team per 2,000 targeted learners - Increased number of teams; NEED MORE • Training manual for nurses developed & training on ISHP provided to all provinces • Advocacy Material developed
Advocacy Materials developed • Information leaflets on school health screening • Vision, hearing, oral health & speech impairments for educators & parents • Information leaflets for parents, learners on ISHP • Immunisation & de-worming for educators & parents • Advocacy leaflets for educators, parents & learners on alcohol and drug abuse • Advocacy leaflets for educators, parents & learners on TB (draft)
Parental involvement and consent • Active parental consent for all learners & learner assent (12 years & older) • Voluntary participation • Information leaflets, health education translated in all official languages • Consultations with SGBs • Parents encouraged to accompany learners when school health teams come
Achievements continued Data for 2013 April-December only
Challenges • Equipment not sufficient, especially audiometers • Credible data and timely reporting • Human Resources: DSD to appoint Provincial Coordinators, DOH: more school health teams (nurses, social workers, child and youth care workers), DBE needs dedicated ISHP officials • Lack of funding
ISHPPartners • Colgate Palmolive provided health education to 679 304 learners in 2013/14 • Transnet- Phelophepa Train provides health screening and services to learners • UNICEF funded 5 Year Strategy, TB awareness programme, health promotion material, support the development of implementation plans in EC • CDC funded Interprovincial meetings • CIE provided health services to 598 learners in 2013/14 in deep rural areas • VODACOM to develop service delivery & reporting model for mobile units • Bona Bolo to provide glasses to 8 schools in NW • Spec Savers, SterKinekorprovides glasses to learners in GP, NC, FS provinces • LoveLife supports health education • And many others………………….
Best practices • The ISHP is overseen by the DDGs of DBE & DOH • Example of inter-departmental collaboration • Monthly task team meetings held • Strong SGB and community involvement • Partnerships extend the reach of the ISHP
Plans for 2014/15 • Targets for 2014/15 • Grade 1 (all quintiles) • Grades 4, 8, 10 quintile 1-2 • Learners in special schools, repeating grades • HPV for Grade 4 girls • 8 ECF pilot districts • Stronger Inter-sectoral collaboration • Full implementation of the health services package • Functional Referral Systems • Must ensure services provided, beyond screening • Data collection & reporting (evidence) • Psychosocial Support • Resources
Conclusion • Since 2010 huge strides have been made in programme development & expanding • Strategy for universal coverage of all learners in ISHP is being developed, based on global evidence of best practice and our own experience • Strong political leadership and support • ISHP mechanism to deliver on Outcome 1 and 2 of government (Quality Basic Education and A Long and Healthy Life for All South Africans) • Can build on achievements made thus far