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CHAPTER 11 Metal-Casting Processes Summary of Casting Processes (a) (b) Die-Casting Examples

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chapter 11


Metal-Casting Processes

die casting examples



Die-Casting Examples

Figure 11.1 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast, high purity magnesium case. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting, Inc.

casting examples
Casting Examples

Figure 11.2 Typical gray-iron castings used in automobiles, including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front). Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation.

Figure 11.3 A cast transmission housing.

sand mold features
Sand Mold Features

Figure 11.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold, showing various features.

steps in sand casting
Steps in Sand Casting

Figure 11.5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.

patterns for sand casting
Patterns for Sand Casting

Figure 11.6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting.

Figure 11.7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold.

examples of sand cores and chaplets
Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets

Figure 11.8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.

squeeze heads
Squeeze Heads

Figure 11.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head; (b) profile head; (c) equalizing squeeze pistons; and (d) flexible diaphragm. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen. Used with permission.

vertical flaskless molding
Vertical Flaskless Molding

Figure 11.10 Vertical flaskless molding. (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern. (b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring.

sequence of operations for sand casting
Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting

Figure 11.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves, which are pasted together. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins, and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (continued)

sequence of operations for sand casting cont
Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont.)

Figure 11.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner, with the pattern inserted. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. (i) The pattern, flask, and bottom board are inverted, and the pattern is withdrawn, leaving the appropriate imprint. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid, which might lift the cope. (l) After the metal solidifies, the casting is removed from the mold. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned, inspected, and heat treated (when necessary).

surface roughness for various metalworking processes
Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes

Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.

dump box technique
Dump-Box Technique

Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.

composite molds
Composite Molds

Figure 11.14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. Source: Steel Castings Handbook, 5th ed. Steel Founders' Society of America, 1980. (b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold. Source: Metals Handbook, vol. 5, 8th ed.

expendable pattern casting
Expendable Pattern Casting

Figure 11.15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process, also known as lost foam or evaporative casting.

ceramic molds
Ceramic Molds

Figure 11.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Source: Metals Handbook, vol. 5, 8th ed.

Figure 11.17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging. Source: Metals Handbook, vol. 5, 8th ed.

investment casting
Investment Casting

Figure 11.18 Schematic illustration of investment casting, (lost-wax process). Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.

investment casting of a rotor
Investment Casting of a Rotor

Figure 11.19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. (a) Wax pattern assembly. (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled, under a vacuum, with molten superalloy. (d) The cast rotor, produced to net or near-net shape. Source: Howmet Corporation.

investment and conventionally cast rotors
Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors

Figure 11.20 Cross-section and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast; (bottom) conventionally cast. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes, October 1990, p. 25 ASM International

vacuum casting process
Vacuum-Casting Process

Figure 11.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Source: From R. Blackburn, "Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial," Advanced Materials and Processes, February 1990, p. 18. ASM International.

pressure casting
Pressure Casting

Figure 11.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. (b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel. Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging.

hot and cold chamber die casting



Hot- and Cold-Chamber Die-Casting

Figure 11.23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. (b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process. Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology.

cold chamber die casting machine


Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine

Figure 11.24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.

hot chamber die casting machine


Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine

Figure 11.24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine, DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998). This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1.25 million.

die casting die cavities
Die-Casting Die Cavities

Figure 11.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die. Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.

Figure 11.26 Examples of cast-in- place inserts in die casting. (a) Knurled bushings. (b) Grooved threaded rod.

centrifugal casting process
Centrifugal Casting Process

Figure 11.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pipes, cylinder liners, and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process.

semicentrifugal casting
Semicentrifugal Casting

Figure 11.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine, and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force.

squeeze casting

Figure 11.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.

single crystal casting of turbine blades


Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades

Figure 11.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification; (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade; and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Source: (a) and (b) B. H. Kear, Scientific American, October 1986; (c) Advanced Materials and Processes, October 1990, p. 29, ASM International.

single crystal casting
Single Crystal Casting

Figure 11.31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Source: L. H. Van Vlack, Materials for Engineering. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

melt spinning
Melt Spinning

Figure 11.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal.

types of melting furnaces
Types of Melting Furnaces

Figure 11.33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible, and (b) cupola.