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Bound roots

Bound roots

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Bound roots

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  1. Bound roots • Ludique : “relatif au jeu” • Volcanique : “relatif aux volcans et à leurs activités” • Atomique : “qui a rapport aux atomes” • Catastrophique : “qui a les caractères d’une catastrophe” • Sphérique : “en forme de sphère” • *Lud(e) vs. volcan, atome, catastrophe, sphère

  2. Bound roots : -lud- • Ludique • Ludisme : “activité ludique” • Ludoéducatif : “qui vise à éduquer par l’intermédiaire d’un jeu” • Ludothèque : “centre de prêt de jouets et de jeux” • Interlude : “petit intermède dans un programme dramatique, cinématographique, etc.”

  3. Bound roots • Sous-chef • Sous-homme • Sous-fifre

  4. Bound roots • Sous-chef • “Celui qui vient immédiatement après le chef dans certaines hiérarchies” • Sous-homme • “Homme inférieur, privé de sa dignité d’homme”

  5. Bound roots • Sous-fifre • “Subalterne, tout petit employé” • Fifre • “1. Petite flûte traversière en bois au song aigu. 2. Joueur de fifre” • Origine de sous-fifre : “fifre pop. “homme maladroit”

  6. Blueberry Blackberry Gooseberry Strawberry Elderberry Cranberry Huckleberry Lukewarm Myrtille Mûre Groseille à maquereau Fraise Baie de sureau Airelle Myrtille Tiède Huckles and Ceives

  7. Bound roots • cran- • huckle- • (straw-) • (elder-) • (goose-) • luke-

  8. -phon- phonetic phonetics phonetician phonic phonology phonologist Phonological telephone phone telephonic phoneme phonemic allophone euphonious symphony Bound roots

  9. receive conceive perceive deceive *ceive reception conception perception deception *ception Bound roots

  10. remit permit commit *mit remission permission commission mission Bound roots

  11. recevoir concevoir percevoir *cevoir Je reçois, réception Je conçois, conception Je perçois, perception *cois, ception Bound roots

  12. Bound roots • The meaning of the lexeme is related to the meaning of (at least) one of the morphemes it contains. • Associated with a clear meaning but does not appear in isolation: -lud-, -phon-, … • Not associated with a clear meaning combines with morphemes that have a clear meaning: cran-, huckle-, luke-, … • Associated with a clear meaning but that meaning is irrelevant: straw-, elder-, -fifre

  13. Bound roots • The meaning of the lexeme is not clearly related to any of its parts • But : • the root has regular formal properties: -ceive, -mit, … • it combines with identifiable affixes

  14. Morphemes and the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign • Blackberry

  15. Morphemes and the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign • Blueberry

  16. Morphemes and the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign • Elderberry

  17. Naming and lexemes • People need to name things, ideas, properties, actions, etc. • Morphological principles of language allow one to build lexemes for naming things

  18. Naming and lexemes • Morphologically constructed meaning • blackberry = “a type of berry that is black” • Lexeme meaning • blackberry = “a certain type of berry called mûre in French”

  19. Lexeme meaning and phrase meaning • A ‘blackberry (compound) • A black ‘berry (phrase)

  20. Naming and lexemes • Porte-N: morphologically constructed meaning: “person or thing that carries N” • Porte-drapeau : “Celui qui porte le drapeau d’un régiment” • Porte-glaive : “Celui qui porte un glaive” • Porte-cigares : “Etui à cigares” • Portemanteau : “Patère, ensemble de patères pour suspendre des manteaux ; vx. Officier qui portait le manteau d’un grand personnage”

  21. Morphemes and the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign • fifre • “1. Petite flûte traversière en bois au song aigu. 2. Joueur de fifre. 3. pop. et arch. “homme maladroit.” • sous-fifre = sous + fifre3 • fifre3 disappears • sous-fifre remains • Conclusion: the arbitrary link between meaning and form is at lexeme level.

  22. Morphemes and the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign • uncouth: “If you describe a person as uncouth, you mean that they are bad-mannered, and that their behaviour is unpleasant and unacceptable” • *couth • ungainly: “awkward, clumsy” • *gainly

  23. Compounds • Stem + stem • Blackberry [blackAdj + berryN] N • Gooseberry [gooseN + berryN] N • Dishwasher [dishN + [washV + erV→N]N ]N • Porte-manteau [porteV + manteauN]N • Porte-cigarette [porteV + [cigareN + etteN→N]N ]N

  24. Hyperonyms and hyponyms

  25. Endocentric compounds • A blackberry is a kind of berry • The compound is a hyperonym of one of the stems  That stem is the semantic head • The category of the compound (N) is the same as the category of that stem  That stem is the syntactic head • The head is one of the stems:  The compound: is endocentric

  26. More endocentric compounds • greenhouseN = greenAdj + houseN • (kind of house) • catfishN = catN + fishN • (kind of fish) • pushcartN = pushV + cartN • (kind of cart) • lemon yellowAdj = lemonN + yellowAdj • (kind of yellow) [also NN, name of the colour]