10.40% 10.80% 5.80% 51.10% 31.90% Body Interior Drive Chassis E&E Use of Polymer in Cars 11.2% (142Kg) of total weight, (excluding tires). Source: BMW
Trends in Automotive Technology • Yesteryears
Trends in Automotive Technology • Today
Trends in Automotive Technology • The future
Trends in Automotive Technology • Reduce exhaust emissions. • Better fuel economy. • Improved safety. • Increase comfort and convenience.
Trends in Automotive Technology European Union Directive 2000/53/EC “End of Life Vehicle”
Trends in Automotive Technology 8 to 9 million tonnes of waste every year. • Design and Manufacture for reuse, recycling and recovery. • Reduction and control of Hazardous substances.
Idle-Stop Air Conditioning • First justification for 42 Volts. • Car makers are unanimous. • Today’s batteries (14 Volts) cannot supply the energy.
Impact on some applications? • Integrated Starter Alternator. • Proliferation of Electric Motors and Actuators. • Electric Water Pumps/Systems. • A completely new air conditioning system. • More Solenoids, Sensors, etc. • Higher requirements for Connectors, Switches. • Integrated Control Modules.
Trends in Automotive Technology All trends require more electrical power (Battery from 2kW to 6kW and beyond ?) Increase in power require more voltage Hence 42 Volts
Impact on Plastics? Noticeable shift from: • Thermosets to Thermoplastics. • Amorphous to Crystalline polymers. • Moderate to High temperature materials. • Approx. 25% increase in volume of Plastics.
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance Miniaturisation of components Higher power and higher temperature requirements Increase in ambient temperatures
Heat Deflection Temperature Weight Thermometer Heating Solution Test Bar
Heat Deflection Temperature Gives an indication on the Maximum short term temperature a polymer can withstand under load.
Beware! Crastin* S600F10 (Unreinforced PBT) HDT @0.45MPa 160 0C HDT @1.8MPa 60 0C Crastin* SK605 (30% Glass Fibre PBT) HDT @0.45MPa 220 0C HDT @1.8MPa 205 0C HDT @5.0MPa 180 0C
RelativeTemperature Index Gives an indication of the long term temperature behaviour of a Plastic in respect to their; Electrical properties Mechanical properties with impact Mechanical properties without impact
RTI Temperature at which after 60,000 hours (7 years) the properties drops to 50% of it’s initial value.
RTI Zenite* 7130 Black (30% Glass Fibre LCP), @1.5 mm wall section. Electrical properties 240 0C Mechanical properties with impact 210 0C Mechanical properties without impact 240 0C
Beware HDT RTI Zytel* 101L (Nylon 6.6) HDT @ 0.45MPa 2000C RTI W/O Imp. 850C
PEEK Zenite* LCP Vespel* PI Ryton* PPS Phenolic PEI Xtel* PPS/PA Zytel* HTN PPA Rynite* PET PA 4/6 Crastin* PBT A Rough Guide
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance Fuses, switches, relays, connectors (connection & disconnection under load).
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance High amperage arc resistance (HAI) - Simulates an arc occurs between two electrodes, under low voltage but a high current, e.g. the connector pins of a plug. Or High voltage, low current, dry arc resistance - Simulates a conductive path, subject to high voltage between two electrodes, e.g. high voltage conductors separated by a insulator.
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance • Higher track resistance
CTI The relative resistance of a material to tracking for voltage up to 600V, when the surface is exposed under electric stress to water with the addition of contaminants.
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance • Higher track resistance • Flame retardant resins Wiring insulation, connectors
25.4mm 76.2mm 25.4mm SPECIMEN WIREGAUZE 450 UL94 Flammability The HB rating is given if the burn rate, measured between the 2 marks, does not exceed: 38,1 mm / min for 3,2 mm test bar thickness 63,5 mm / min for < 3,2 mm test bar thickness if the test bar stops burning before reaching the 100 mm mark.
Classification: UL V-0 V-1 V-2 No of flame applications 2x10 s 2x10 s 2x10s Significance: Max burning time single specimen <10 s <30 s <30 s Max burning time 5 specimens <50 s <250 s <250s Dripping ignition of cotton no no yes Afterglow <30 s <60 s <60 s Afterglow ignition of cotton none none yes UL94 Flammability 12,7 127 mm SPECIMEN 9.5 mm 305 mm
UL94 Flammability 5VA classification (bars & plaques) 1. No flaming or glowing - 60 s after last flame application. 2. No ignition of the cotton by dripping particles. 3. No holes in plaques. A one time re-testing of a set of test specimens is allowed if only 1 test bar fails. Specimen Overall height of flame 200 Inner blue cone
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance • Higher track resistance • Flame retardant resins • Glow wire • EMI Shielding • Electrical/Heat conductivity Electronic control modules, wireless sensors, pump housings/impellers
Impact on Plastics? • Higher temperature performance • Higher arc resistance • Higher track resistance • Flame retardant resins • Glow wire • EMI Shielding • Electrical/Heat conductivity Higher frequency and/or higher power devices, creates more EM radiation
Semi-conductive polymers • RTP ESD-C-1000; PBT Surface resistivity <106 ohms/sq Volume resistivity <103 ohm-cm • Delrin* 300AS; Acetal with Carbon fibre Surface resistivity 103 ohm/sq Volume resistivity 103 ohm-cm • Zytel* CDV 595; Nylon 6.6 Surface resistivity 103 ohm/sq Volume resistivity 103 ohm-cm • Zytel* EMX 503; FR-Nylon Surface resistivity 1ohm/sq Volume resistivity 102 ohm-cm • RTP EMI-261H; Nylon 6.6 with stainless steel Surface resistivity 105 ohms/sq Volume resistivity 1.0 ohm-cm