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1.82 Volts. 0. 1. 2. 3. seconds. 3.44 ms -2. 55 Nm. 406 μ V. The Surface Mechanomyogram (MMG). Mechanomyography (MMG). Non-invasive technique that records and quantifies the oscillations generated by dimensional changes of the active skeletal muscle fibers.

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the surface mechanomyogram mmg

1.82Volts

0

1

2

3

seconds

3.44 ms-2

55 Nm

406 μV

The Surface Mechanomyogram (MMG)

mechanomyography mmg
Mechanomyography (MMG)
  • Non-invasive technique that records and quantifies the oscillations generated by dimensional changes of the active skeletal muscle fibers.
  • Has also been called acoustic myography, phonomyography, sound myography, and vibromyography.
  • “surface mechanomyogram” recommended at CIBA Foundation Symposium, 1995.
slide3

Orizio, C. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 1993.

force

sound

water line

muscle

hydrophone

  • When muscle fibers contract they oscillate or vibrate.
  • Early MMG studies utilized isolated frog muscle in a sound-insulated chamber and recorded the oscillations with a hydrophone.
slide4

Displacement Sensor

Accelerometer

Laser Beam

Bipolar EMG Electrodes

Force Transducer

Orizio, C., Gobbo, M., Diemont, B., Esposito, F., Veicsteinas, A. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003.

Isometric muscle action at 30% MVC

slide5

Watakabe, M., Itoh, Y., Mita, K., and Akataki, K. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 1998.

  • During voluntary contractions, the oscillations create pressure waves that can be recorded at the skin’s surface using a crystal contact sensor or accelerometer.
slide6

Over the years, there have been a number of hypotheses regarding the origin of the MMG signal that have been ruled out.

  • Vascular sounds
    • MMG can be recorded when blood flow is occluded.
  • Friction between the microphone and skin
    • MMG can be recorded in a water bath and with air coupled microphones.
  • Friction between fascia and muscles
    • Less MMG activity is recorded over fascia such as the vastus lateralis.
    • No MMG activity during passive muscle actions.
  • Bone oscillations
    • MMG can be recorded from isolated muscle.
  • Nerve conduction
    • Ambient temperature does not affect MMG frequency, but does affect nerve conduction velocity.
slide7

The MMG signal has three components:

    • A gross lateral movement at the initiation of a contraction generated by a non-simultaneous activation of muscle fibers.
    • Smaller subsequent lateral oscillations at the resonant frequency of the muscle.
    • Dimensional changes of the active fibers.

Smith, D.B., Housh, T.J.,

Johnson, G.O., Evetovich, T.K.,

Ebersole, K.T., Perry, S.R.

Muscle Nerve. 1998.

slide8

The MMG signal is affected by many factors:

  • Muscle temperature
  • Stiffness
  • Mass
  • Intramuscular pressure
  • Viscosity of the intracellular and extracellular fluid mediums
slide9

Perry, S.R., Housh, T.J., Weir, J.P., Johnson, G.O., Bull, A.J., Ebersole, K.T. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2001.

  • The MMG signal is low frequency:
    • Typically bandpass filtered at 5-100 Hz, while EMG is 10-500 Hz.
slide10

Time and frequency domains of the MMG signals have been used to examine various aspects of muscle function including:

  • Neuromuscular fatigue
  • Electromechanical delay
  • Motor control strategies
  • Muscle fiber type distribution patterns
  • Diagnose neuromuscular disorders in adult and pediatric populations
  • Low back pain
  • Control external prostheses
  • Effectiveness of anesthesia
slide11

Although we are continually learning more, our knowledge of the MMG signal is probably 20-25 years behind that of the EMG signal.

  • M. Stokes:
    • “As knowledge of muscle sounds increases and the development of more appropriate methodology occurs, the potential uses and limitations of [MMG] must be reassessed continually.”
slide12

We have examined the MMG signal in the time and frequency domains under a number of conditions in an attempt to both develop and test hypotheses.

  • Isometric muscle actions
  • Concentric muscle actions
  • Eccentric muscle actions
  • Passive movements
  • Cross-talk
  • Stretching interventions
  • Resistance training interventions
slide14

Coburn, J.W., Housh, T.J., Cramer, J.T., Weir, J.P., Miller, J.M., Beck, T.W., Malek, M.H., and G.O. Johnson. Electromyogr clin Neurophysiol. 2004.

Torque increase is due to increased motor unit firing rate and not recruitment at > 80% MVC since MMG amplitude decreases.

Increase in torque due only to increased recruitment of ST fibers – no change in frequency

Increased frequency due to recruitment of FT fibers at > 50% MVC; these fibers have greater frequency than ST fibers

  • Subjects:
    • n = 10 (7 male, 3 female).
  • Muscle actions:
    • Leg extension:
      • Isometric = 45°
      • Isokinetic = 30°∙s-1
  • Torque:
    • 10 – 100% MVC.
  • Parameters:
    • MMG amplitude and frequency.
  • Muscles:
    • Vastus medialis.

1.0

.9

.8

.7

.6

Normalized MMG rms and MPF

.5

.4

.3

.2

.1

0.0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent Maximal Torque

slide15

Coburn, J.W., Housh, T.J., Cramer, J.T., Weir, J.P., Miller, J.M., Beck, T.W., Malek, M.H., & Johnson, G.O. (2004). J Strength Cond Res. in press.

  • Subjects:
    • n = 7 men
  • Muscle actions:
    • Leg extension:
      • Isometric = 45°
      • Isokinetic = 30°∙s-1
  • Torque:
    • 20 – 100% MVC.
  • Parameters:
    • MMG & EMG amplitude and frequency.
  • Muscles:
    • Vastus medialis.
slide16

Coburn, J.W., Housh, T.J., Cramer, J.T., Weir, J.P., Miller, J.M., Beck, T.W., Malek, M.H., & Johnson, G.O. (2004). J Strength Cond Res. in press.

  • Subjects:
    • n = 7 men
  • Muscle actions:
    • Leg extension:
      • Isometric = 45°
      • Isokinetic = 30°∙s-1
  • Torque:
    • 20 – 100% MVC.
  • Parameters:
    • MMG & EMG amplitude and frequency.
  • Muscles:
    • Vastus medialis.

Vastus Medialis

orizio c gobbo m diemont b esposito f a veicsteinas eur j appl physiol 2003
Orizio, C., Gobbo, M., Diemont, B., Esposito, F., A. Veicsteinas. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003.

Biceps Brachii

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