Electrical Safety In The Workplace
Changing Profession, Changing Attitudes Accepted test methods circa 1942 Testing for voltage by touch under 250 volts considered safe!! Testing for low voltage by tasting!!
Electrical Safety What are the Electrical Hazards? Electrical Shock – When electrical current enters and exits the body creating a path. Arc Flash – A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Note that this explosive condition includes a broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy, plasma, fragments and a spray of molten materials. Arc Blast – Pressure wave caused by the expansion of gases and conducting materials with flying molten materials.
Shock Illustration Current passage paths through the body (A) Touch Potential (B) Step Potential (C and D) Touch / Step Potential Current passing through the heart and lungs is the most serious Electrical Safety
Electrical Safety Current, Not Voltage causes Electrical Shock mAAffect on Person 0.5 - 3 Tingling sensations 3+ Shock 10+ Muscle contractions and pain 30+ Respiratory paralysis 60+ Heart Paralysis (may be fatal) 100+ Ventricular fibrillation (usually fatal) 4+ Amps Heart Paralysis 5+ Amps Tissue and Organs start to burn Effects of Shock on the body
Electrical Safety Statistics
Electrical Safety Arc Rating. Arc Rating is a protection value assigned to textile materials based on predicting 2nd degree burn injury based on the Stoll Curve. Arc Flash hazard. A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Note that this explosive condition includes a broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy, plasma, fragments and a spray of molten materials. Incident Energy as the amount of energy impressed on a surface, a certain distance from the source, generated during an electric arc event. Incident Energy is measured in calories/cm2. Cal/cm2. (Calories per Sq. Centimeter) The total energy on a surface area. It is the unit of measure used for Arc Ratings. Terms and Definitions related to Arc Flash
Electrical Safety Electricity will go through the path of least resistance. When the path of electricity is suddenly interrupted, the electricity will try to create a new pathway. The arc can be generated by: - Mechanical breakdown/failure - Current overload - Accidental contact What causes Arc Flashes?
Electrical Safety Variables that effect the size and energy of an electric arc flash are: Amperage Voltage Arc gap Closure time Distance away from arc 3 phase v single phase Confined space Characteristics of equipment Arc Flash Variables
Electrical Safety As much as 80% of all electrical injuries are burns resulting from an arc-flash and ignition of flammable clothing. Arc temperature can reach 35,000°F - this is four times hotter than the surface of the sun. Fatal burns can occur at distances over 10 ft. Over 2000 people are admitted into burn centers each year with severe electrical burns Example of an arcing fault Arc Flash Impacts
Electrical Safety Arc Blast • Electrical Arc-Flash can create blast in excess of 200 lbs/ft2. • Arc-Blast can cause collateral damage and extreme personal damage. • Explode switchgear • Send molten metal at extreme high velocities.
Electrical Safety Are you in Compliance? Are your workers Safe? • Industry standards and regulations: • OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S • NEC 2011 • NFPA 70E-2012 Edition • Various ASTM Requirements
Electrical Safety NEC 2011 – National Electric Code • 110.16 Arc Flash Hazard Warning -Switchboards, panel boards, industrial control panels, and motor control centers in other than dwelling units, that are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment. FPN No. 1: NFPA 70E-2012,Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, provides assistance in determining severity of potential exposure, planning safe work practices, and selecting personal protective equipment. FPN No. 2: ANSI Z535.4-2007, Product Safety Signs and Labels, provides guidelines for the design of safety signs and labels for application to products.
Electrical Safety Sample NEC Warning Article 110.16
Electrical Safety NFPA 70E – 2012 Edition Standard • Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces • This requirement covers all aspects of worker safety associated with electrical hazards in the workplace. Within this standard are recommendations for proper PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) • Addresses hazards: • Shock • Arc Flash • Requirements for shock and arc flash boundaries • Requirements for personal protective equipment
Electrical Safety NFPA 70E 2012 Summary of Significant Changes • All references to “FR” now changed to “Arc Rated”. This identifies that FR clothing is not necessarily tested to the ASTM test for arc rating. • Addition of incident energy tables for direct current (DC) systems. • Terms such as “flash protection boundary”, “flash hazard boundary”, and “flash boundary” changed to new term “arc flash boundary”. • The nose was added to the coverage needed from a balaclava. • Retraining shall be performed at intervals not to exceed 3 years. • Electrical safety program shall identify procedures for working :within the limited approach boundary and arc flash boundary to clarify the separation between the two boundaries. • Removal of 2* category. For 2012, all is included in category 2. • Arc Blast is now a recognized hazard by NFPA 70E. Inclusion of this hazard may require updated assessments. • Employees must report any perceived contact to supervision. • Employers must inform contractors of any known hazards.
Electrical Safety How Do I Protect My Workers???
Electrical Safety • NFPA 70E Approach Boundaries
Electrical Safety • NFPA 70E provides two choices for selecting the appropriate PPE: • Perform an arc flash hazard analysis, and document the incident energy exposure • EasyPower • Duke Flux Software (Freeware) • ETAP • IEEE 1584 Standard • As an alternate, use the “Hazard Risk Category Classifications” table to choose the PPE level required for the task
Electrical Safety Salisbury Assessment Solutions (SAS) A full turn-key solution which provides an arc flash hazard analysis and the necessary PPE recommendations needed to protect workers against those hazards
Electrical Safety What Does SAS Provide? • SAS will put you into compliance! • Engineering service designed to identify hazardous electrical conditions which may exist in commercial or industrial facilities. • Proper compliance training of personnel on procedures to help reduce injury/harm to the electrical worker
Electrical Safety SAS Process • Initial Review • Our engineers will review your line drawings and based on those drawings, identify potential risks in your work environment. • If line drawings are out of date or unavailable, our engineers will be onsite to identify the potential risks. • Post Review • SAS will provide you with a full summary of the assessment as well as recommend practices to improve your organizations safety practices. • SAS provides the training necessary to ensure your staff is educated in safe work practices. • SAS will recommend the necessary PPE to provide your staff with essential protective equipment to keep them safe in the event of an arc flash. Salisbury Assessment Solutions gives you the Tools and Training to provide a Safe Work Environment!!
Electrical Safety Benefits of SAS – Turn Key Solution • Assessment Solutions • SAS will complete the Salisbury by Honeywell “One Stop” Arc Flash Solution that our competition cannot offer • For years, Salisbury by Honeywell has offered all of the electrical PPE needed for an electrical worker. • Now with Salisbury Assessment Solutions, Salisbury by Honeywell can offer electrical assessments and training! • SAS Consumer Promise • SAS will continue to provide the worker with the same quality in its SAS service as the industry has come to expect from the products that Salisbury by Honeywell has provided since 1855.
Electrical Safety Who Could Use SAS? • Institutional • Government • Manufacturing • Hospitals • Warehousing • Marine • Military • All Non Residential Facilities With Electrical Power Requirements
Electrical Safety Getting Started With Your SAS Assessment!!
What Is Electrical Safety PPE? Electrical Safety The Term “Electrical Safety PPE” Includes All Products Available To The Worker To Ensure a Safe Work Environment
Electrical Safety • Who Needs Electrical Safety PPE? • OSHA/NFPA 70E states: “For energized circuits over 50 volts or more, safety tools and personal protective equipment must be used.”
Electrical Safety • Hazard Risk 2 Maximum Exposure 8 cal/cm² Minimal Protection Level 8 cal/cm²
Electrical Safety • Hazard Risk 3 Maximum exposure 25 cal/cm² Required Protection Level 25 cal/cm²
Electrical Safety Hazard Risk 4 Maximum Exposure 40 cal/cm² Required Protection Level 40 cal/cm²
Electrical Safety • NFPA 70E: • Does Not Recognize a Hazard Above 40 cal/cm² • Suits With Higher Values Are Available But Are Not Recognized by NFPA 70E • May Be Needed When Using Software Method
Electrical Safety • Make the Right Choice • Uniforms • HRC 1 & 2 Solution • Coveralls • Additional Layer • Do Not Use Over 11 cal/cm2 • 3 Piece System • Bib Overalls / Jacket / Hood • Higher Risk Categories • Lab Coats • Unsafe • Additional Leg Protection Needed / Leggings
Electrical Safety • Face Shields Must Meet ASTM F2178-02 Must Meet ANSI Z87.1 Meet Same Criteria for ATPV Rating Given to Garments Based on ASTM F1958
Electrical Safety • Face Shields • Proper Storage Will Prolong Life of Face Shield • Clean With Mild Soap and Warm Water • DO NOT USE • Cleaners with Abrasives • Dish Soap with Scents • Petroleum Based Cleaners
Electrical Safety • Insulating Gloves OSHA 1910.333(a)(1) Rubber Insulating Gloves are among the most important articles of personal protective equipment for electrical workers. They are the first line of defense for contact with any energized components or lines.
Electrical Safety ASTM Labeling Chart
Electrical Safety Types of Rubber • Two Types of Rubber • Type I • Flexible • Corona Cutting • UV • Type II • Less Flexible • Only Available in CL00 and CL0 • Very Durable
Electrical Safety Glove Inspection • Working around sharp object, in close proximity to energized parts • Gloves must be inspected prior to each use • There are two ways to inspect gloves • Manual • Portable glove inflator
Electrical Safety Gloves Reject Criteria Rejection of Gloves • Cuts • Punctures • Ozone checking • Corona Cutting • Embedded foreign materials • Oil markings • Gloves that leak air.
Electrical Safety Gloves Testing The interval between electrical retest for issued Rubber Gloves shall not exceed six months Gloves that have been electrically tested but not issued shall not be placed into service unless they have been electrically tested within previous twelve months
Electrical Safety Gloves Storage • Rubber gloves should be stored in glove bags • Do not store more than one pair of gloves in each bag • Do not store on or in front of truck heaters. • Do not roll , fold or tape
Electrical Safety Glove Liner Glove liners made from stretch fabric accommodate a range of hand sizes, absorb perspiration and improve wearer comfort and dexterity.
Electrical Safety Typical Products Containing Petroleum Products • Washing detergents • Safe Alternative - Salisbury’s Salco Cleaner. • Hand soaps- Use Salisbury’s Rub-Out hand cleaner. • Baby powder-Use Salisbury’s 10-4 Glove Dust.
Electrical Safety Application • Sizing of Rubber Gloves • To determine the proper size, measure the distance around the palm of the hand between the thumb and forefinger
Electrical Safety Leather Protector Gloves Leather Protector Gloves should always be worn over electrical insulating gloves to provide needed mechanical protection against abrasion or cuts. Leather protectors should never be used as work gloves and work gloves should never be used as protectors.
Electrical Safety Arc Flash & Gloves • NFPA 70E Requires that Voltage Rated Gloves and Protectors Must Be Worn in the Presence Of Voltage But Does Not Discuss Arc Ratings for Gloves. • NFPA 70E Does Say That Leather Gloves Offer Good Arc Flash Protection
Electrical Safety Insulated Tools • NFPA 70E 130.7(D)(1)- • Employees Shall Use Insulated Tools and/or Handling Equipment When Working Inside the Limited Approach Boundary of Exposed Live Parts Where Tools or Handling Equipment Might Make Accidental Contact….. • Both NFPA 70E and OSHA Require Insulated Tools When Working On or Near 50V or More While Energized
Electrical Safety Insulated Tools • ASTM F1505 • OSHA 1910.333(c)(2) • Tested to 10,000V • Max Use 1000V • Must Have Two Color Coating if Coated Tool • Must Show Symbol For Use in Live Voltage Situation
Electrical Safety • Blankets • Blankets, as all other insulating products (except rubber gloves, used with leather protectors) are designed to provide protection against accidental contact with energized parts • Salisbury Insulating Blankets, compliant with ASTM D1048 specification, are flexible and feature a reinforced beaded edge and eyelets for added strength and tear-resistance • Salisbury insulating blankets are available in Type I – natural rubber and Type II SALCOR ® rubber