Download
overclocking and cooling n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Overclocking and Cooling PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Overclocking and Cooling

Overclocking and Cooling

409 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Overclocking and Cooling

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Overclocking and Cooling Damian Kardański

  2. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  3. Introduction Overclocking - the process of running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer As clock frequencies in digital circuitsincrease, the heat generated by components running at the clock speed also increases. Cooling - the process of removing heat from computer components.

  4. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  5. Quartz crystals in controling a system’s speed Quartz crystal is silicon dioxide (SiO2) in crystalline form. Hard, transparent material, brittle, but with a little bit of elasticity

  6. Quartz crystals in controling a system’s speed Piezoelectricity: Ability of some materials to generate a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress and to generate mechanical stress when subjected to a voltage. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880 and it’stheessentialfeature of quartzthatmakesitusefulin electronic circuits.

  7. Quartz crystals in controling a system’s speed Thespeed of a computer system isderivedfromthemainmotherboardcrystal (always 14.31818 MHz) inconjuctionwith a frequency timing generator (FTG) or a frequencysynthesizer. Frequencysynthesizer chips usephasedlockedloop (PLL) cicrcuity to generatesynchronizedprocessor, PCI, AGP, and other bus timing signalthatareallderivedfrom a single 14.31818 crystal.

  8. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  9. Beginning’s of overclocking IBM PC AT (Advanced Technology)from 1984. To run the system a socketedcrystal of 12 MHzor 16 MHz was used. Thetimer chip dividedthecrystalspeed by 2 (speeds of 6 MHz and 8MHz). An 18 MHzor 20 MHzcrystalcould be purchased for $1.

  10. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  11. Overclocking modern PCs Most modern motherboardsallow to changespeed, timing and voltagesettings of computer componentsinthe BIOS Setup.

  12. Overclocking modern PCs Processors run at a multiple of theprocessor bus (FSB/CPU bus/PSB) speed and theselectedmultipleislockedwithintheprocessor. Example: Intel Pentium 4 3.2E processorrunningat 3200 MHZ on 800 MHz CPU bus (lockedmultiplier – 4). Increasing CPU bus speed to 832 MHz (4%) results in the increase of the processor speed to 3328 MHZ.

  13. Overclocking modern PCs IncreasingFSB’sspeedincreasesthespeed of otherbuses (memory, PCI, AGP) by the same percentage. Therefore, afterincreasingFSB’sspeed, ifthememoryoranyothercomponentisunstableatthehigherspeed, the system will stillcrash, eventhoughtheprocessormighthavebeencapable of sustainingit.

  14. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  15. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  16. Heatsinks - passive Heatsink – an object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using thermal contact.

  17. Heatsinks - passive Heatsinksarerated for theircooling performance. Typically, theratingsareexpressed as a thermal resistanceindegreescentigrade per watt (°C/W), wherelowerisbetter.

  18. Heatsinks - active Activeheatsinksincorporatefansorother electric coolingdevicethatrequirespower to run. Thisprovidesconstant and moreefficient air flow.

  19. Heatsinks – Thermal interface materials To havethebestpossible transfer of theheatfromthedevice to theheatsinksometype of thermal interfacematerialisplacedbetweenthosetwo. It’stypically a ceramic, aluminaorsilver-basedgrease but itcanalso be inthe form of a special pad oreven a type of double-sticktape.

  20. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  21. Liquid cooling - Heatpipes Heatpipeisa heat transfer device able to transport considerable amount of heat energy betweentwointerfaces.

  22. Liquid cooling - Heatpipes Heatpipe - hermeticallysealedtubewith a finewickstructureliningtheinnerwalls, hollowcoreinthe center. Vacuminside, partialyfilledwith a special fluid.

  23. Liquid cooling - Heatpipes Heatpipe - hermeticallysealedtubewith a finewickstructureliningtheinnerwalls, hollowcoreinthe center. Vacuminside, partialyfilledwith a special fluid.

  24. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  25. Liquid cooling – Water cooling Watercooling – circulatingwaterovertheprocessororothercomponents, therbykeepingthemcool. It’s one of the most efficienttypes of cooling, but expensive and verytroublesome to use and maintain.

  26. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  27. Thermally advantaged chassis Thermallyadvantaged chassis improvecooling for theprocessor by maintaining a temperature of 38°C or less attheprocessorheatsink inlet.

  28. Thermally advantaged chassis • To meettherequirements of thetherm. ad. chassis, thefollowingspecificationsarerecommended: • Accepts an industry-standard ATX, MicroATX or FlexATX motherboard • Accepts an industry-standard ATX, SFX or TFX powersupplywithintegralexhaust fan • Uses a removablesidecoverwith an adjustableprocessorduct and adapter card vent • Provides a primary chassis rearexhaust fan of 92mm orlarger and an optionalfront-mounted 80mm fan (excludinganyfansinthepowersupply).

  29. Framework • Introduction • Quartz crystals in controlling a system’s speed • Beginnings of overclocking • Overclocking modern PCs • Cooling methods • Heatsinsks • Passive • Active • Thermal interface materials • Liquid cooling • Heatpipes • Water cooling • Thermally advantaged chassis • Processor duct

  30. Processor duct Processorduct – a tubepositioneddirectlyovertheprocessorheatsink, allowingit to pullcool air fromoutsidethe chassis. TheProcessorduct is the most important part of the thermally advantaged chassis

  31. Processor duct • Processorduct’seffectscan be viewedinthetable. Testswhereperformedin a 25° C room and thefollowingcomponentswereused: • 3GHz Pentium 4 • D865PERL motherboard • GeForce 4 video card • DDR400 memory • Harddrive • CD-ROM drive • Soundcard • Rear and front fan

  32. Conclusion Upgrading a computer system to run fasterisusuallycalledoverclocking. When chips run faster, they run hotter, so coolingupgrades go hand-in-handwithoverclocking. Systems that run cooltend to be morestable and morereliable, so evenifyoudon’toverclockyour system, ensuringthatitrunscoolisessential for trouble-freeoperation.