Passive Heating and Cooling. Passive Design. Uses ambient energy sources instead of purchased energy Daylighting Natural ventilation Solar energy . Active Design. Uses purchased energy to keep the building comfortable HVAC Heat pumps Radiant panels Chilled beams Electrical lights.
When planning urban centers, specifically in the heating dominated climates, having buildings gradually increase in height will minimize high speed winds at the pedestrian level
In hot climates thin buildings with their biggest face exposed to the sun