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Heating and Cooling

Heating and Cooling

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Heating and Cooling

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  1. Heating and Cooling

  2. Coordinator: • Karel Kabele, kabele@fsv.cvut.cz, CTU in Prague • Contributors: • EricWillems, Erwin Roijen, Peter Op 't Veld, P.OpTVeld@chri.nl • Camilla Brunsgaard, cbru@create.aau.dk & Mary-Ann Knudstrup, mak@create.aau.dk, Aalborg University, Per Kvols Heiselberg, ph@civil.aau.dk, Tine S. Larsen, Olena K. Larsen, Rasmus Lund Jensen (AAU) • ArturasKaklauskas, Arturas.kaklauskas@st.vgtu.lt, AudriusBanaitis, Audrius.banaitis@vgtu.lt , Vilnius Geniminas Technical University (VGTU) • Marco Perino, marco.perino@polito.it, Gianvi Fracastoro, Stefano Corgnati, Valentina Serra (POLITO) • Werner Stutterecker, werner.stutterecker@fh-burgenland.at, (FH-B) • MattheosSantamouris, msantam@phys.uoa.gr, Margarita Asimakopoulos, Marina Laskari, marlaskari@googlemail.com, (NKUA) • Zoltan Magyar, zmagyar@invitel.hu, Mihaly Baumann, AnikoVigh, idesedu.pte@gmail.com (PTE) • Manuela Almeida, malmeida@civil.uminho.pt, Sandra Silva, sms@civil.uminho.pt, Ricardo Mateus, ricardomateus@civil.uminho.pt, University of Minho (UMINHO) • PiotrBartkiewicz, piotr.bartkiewicz@is.pw.edu.pl, PiotrNarowski, piotr.narowski@is.pw.edu.pl (WUT) • Matthias Haase, matthias.Haase@sintef.no, (NTNU) • Karel Kabele, kabele@fsv.cvut.cz, Pavla Dvořáková, pavla.dvorakova@fsv.cvut.cz, (CTU – FCE)

  3. LECTURE 12 HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS CONTROL

  4. Fundamentals of control; output control; safety control, predictive control; intelligent buildings.

  5. Fundamentals ofcontrol

  6. What is it - Control system ? • Device, whichchangesoneor more parametersoftheheating/coolingsystem • temperature • flowrate • pressure

  7. Why to controlheating/coolingsystem • Output controlaccording to actualheatloss • Operationsafety • Restriction by operationalparametersofheat source orany element ofheatingsystem • Hydronicbalancing

  8. Feedback Controlled system Actuator Controller Y X W Z Control circuit • Controlled variable x • Manipulated variable y • Disturbance variable z • Command variable w

  9. Manipulation • Controlled variable is changed by actuator • No feed-back, no controller ? Controlled system Actuator X Z

  10. Hand actuated control • Controller = man Feed back Controlled system Actuator Y X Z W

  11. Automatic actuated controll • w and/or x activates actuator to achieve required value of x Feed back Controlled system Actuator Regulátor Y X W Z

  12. Control circuit Technical background • Measurement of controlled and command variable • electronic thermometer, flow meter, pressure meter • Controller • Compare measured values with required valuesa and activates actuator • Actuator • Control valve, shutoff valve, three-way valve

  13. Output sampling controllers • Manipulated variable – on/off, 0-0,5-1 • Example: room thermostat

  14. Continuous action controllers Manipulated variable vs. Controlled variable = transition characteristic. • P - proportional • I – integral • D – shunt • T – time delay • … • Fuzzy logic – more variables

  15. Controllers - energy • Self actuated controllers • Energy from the controlled systém • Electronic controllers • Pressured air actuated controllers

  16. Actuators • Electromagnetic shut-off valves • Control valves • Mixing 3 or 4 way valves

  17. Thermostatic valves With remote sensor With remote setup Radiator valve Common

  18. Application of 3way valve

  19. output control; safety control, predictive control; intelligent buildings

  20. OPERATION OF HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

  21. Commissioning; Inspection; Fault detection, Operation, Energy audit Last developements in theheating/cooling field