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  1. October 29, 2015 Leadoff Question How many atoms in one mole of Carbon?

  2. Chapter 4: Atoms 9th Grade Physical Science

  3. Atomos: Not to Be Cut The History of Atomic Theory Investigating Atoms and Atomic Theory

  4. Atomic Models • This model of the atom may look familiar to you. This is the Bohr model. In this model, the nucleus is orbited by electrons, which are in different energy levels. • A model uses familiar ideas to explain unfamiliar facts observed in nature. • A model can be changed as new information is collected.

  5. The atomic model has changed throughout the centuries, starting in 400 BC, when it looked like a billiard ball →

  6. Who are these men? In this lesson, we’ll learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped define our views.

  7. Democritus 400 BC • This is the Greek philosopher Democritus who began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago. • He asked: Could matter be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, or was there a limit to the number of times a piece of matter could be divided?

  8. Atomos • His theory: Matter could not be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, eventually the smallest possible piece would be obtained. • This piece would be indivisible. • He named the smallest piece of matter “atomos,” meaning “not to be cut.”

  9. Atomos • To Democritus, atoms were small, hard particles that were all made of the same material but were different shapes and sizes. • Atoms were infinite in number, always moving and capable of joining together.

  10. This theory was ignored and forgotten for more than 2000 years!

  11. Why? • The eminent philosophers of the time, Aristotle and Plato, had a more respected, (and ultimately wrong) theory. Aristotle and Plato favored the earth,fire, air and waterapproach to the nature of matter. Their ideas held sway because of their eminence as philosophers. The atomos idea was buried for approximately 2000 years.

  12. Dalton’s Model • In the early 1800s, the English Chemist John Dalton performed a number of experiments that eventually led to the acceptance of the idea of atoms.

  13. Dalton’s Theory • He deduced that all elements are composed of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible particles. • Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. • Atoms of different elements are different. • Compounds are formed by the joining of atoms of two or more elements.

  14. . • This theory became one of the foundations of modern chemistry.

  15. Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model • In 1897, the English scientist J.J. Thomson provided the first hint that an atom is made of even smaller particles.

  16. Thomson Model • He proposed a model of the atom that is sometimes called the “PlumPudding” model. • Atoms were made from a positively chargedsubstance with negatively charged electrons scattered about, like raisins in a pudding.

  17. Thomson Model • Thomson studied the passage of an electric current through a gas. • As the current passed through the gas, it gave off rays of negatively charged particles.

  18. Thomson Model Where did they come from? • This surprised Thomson, because the atoms of the gas were uncharged. Where had the negative charges come from?

  19. Thomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom. A particle smaller than an atom had to exist. The atom was divisible! Thomson called the negatively charged “corpuscles,” today known as electrons. Since the gas was known to be neutral, having no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom. But he could never find them.

  20. Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment • In 1908, the English physicist Ernest Rutherford was hard at work on an experiment that seemed to have little to do with unraveling the mysteries of the atomic structure.

  21. Rutherford’s experiment Involved firing a stream of tiny positively charged particles at a thin sheet of gold foil (2000 atoms thick)

  22. Most of the positively charged “bullets” passed right through the gold atoms in the sheet of gold foil without changing course at all. • Some of the positively charged “bullets,” however, did bounce away from the gold sheet as if they had hit something solid. He knew that positive charges repel positive charges.

  23. This could only mean that the gold atoms in the sheet were mostly open space. Atoms were not a pudding filled with a positively charged material. • Rutherford concluded that an atom had a small, dense, positively charged center that repelled his positively charged “bullets.” • He called the center of the atom the “nucleus” • The nucleus is tiny compared to the atom as a whole.

  24. Rutherford • Rutherford reasoned that all of an atom’s positively charged particles were contained in the nucleus. The negatively charged particles were scattered outside the nucleus around the atom’s edge.

  25. Bohr Model In 1913, the Danish scientist Niels Bohr proposed an improvement. In his model, he placed each electron in a specific energy level.

  26. Bohr Model According to Bohr’s atomic model, electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, much like planets circle the sun. These orbits, or energy levels, are located at certaindistances from the nucleus.

  27. How exactly are the particles arranged? • Bohr Model of the atom: Reviewers think this could lead to misconceptions! All of the protons and the neutrons The 3rd ring can hold up to 18 e- The 1st ring can hold up to 2 e- The 4th ring and any after can hold up to 32 e- The 2nd ring can hold up to 8 e-

  28. What does carbon look like? Mass # = 12 atomic # = 6 p+ = 6 no = 6 e- = 6 6 p and 6 n live in the nucleus

  29. Wave Model

  30. The Wave Model • Today’s atomic model is based on the principles of wavemechanics. • According to the theory of wave mechanics, electrons do not move about an atom in a definite path, like the planets around the sun.

  31. The Wave Model • In fact, it is impossible to determine the exact location of an electron. The probable location of an electron is based on how much energy the electron has. • According to the modern atomic model, an atom has a small positively charged nucleus surrounded by a large region in which there are enough electrons to make an atom neutral.

  32. Electron Cloud: • A space in which electrons are likely to be found. • Electrons whirl about the nucleus billions of times in one second • They are not moving around in random patterns. • Location of electrons depends upon how much energy the electron has.

  33. Electron Cloud: • Depending on their energy they are locked into a certain area in the cloud. • Electrons with the lowest energy are found in the energy level closest to the nucleus • Electrons with the highest energy are found in the outermost energy levels, farther from the nucleus. • Outermost electrons are called valence electrons. • All elements want 8 e- in there outer shell. This makes them the most stable.

  34. The regions in a atom that electrons are likely to be found are called orbitals. • The four different orbitals are called s, p, d, and f orbitals. • s orbitals are the simplest orbitals. They are sphere shaped, they hold 2 electrons.

  35. A p orbital is dumbbell in shape and can be oriented three ways in space. • Because each p orbital can hold two electrons, the three orbitals can hold 6 e-. • The d and forbitals are much more complex. Five possible d orbitals and 7 possible forbitals. An f orbital has the greatest energy.

  36. Isotopes • An isotope is an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. • They feature some of the same chemical properties of the element. • Isotopes of an element vary in mass because their numbers of neutrons differ.

  37. Isotopes of Hydrogen

  38. Isotopes of Hydrogen (Cont.) Hydrogen is present on Earth and the sun. In both places, protium is most common. Only a small fraction of hydrogen found on Earth and the sun is deuterium. Tritium is an unstable isotope and decays very quickly. It is the least common isotope of Hydrogen.

  39. Calculating Neutrons • When you write an atomic symbol for an isotope of an element you will write the elements chemical symbol accompanied by the atomic mass of the element. • Ex. Uranium-235 (used in nuclear reactors), Cl-20

  40. Lesson 4: Using Moles to Count Atoms Counting things is one of the first thing children learn. Can you imagine counting the grains of sand along a stretch of beach or stars in the sky? • Chemists deal with large numbers of small particles. • They use a large counting unit, a collection of very large number of particles. This unit is the mole. • 1 mole = 602 213 670 000 000 000 000 000 particles • Or 6.022 x 1023 particles (MEMORIZE THIS!)

  41. This number is known as Avagadro’s Constant. • Named in honor of Italian scientist AmedeoAvagadro. • Why 6.022 x 1023? This is the amount of atoms in 12.00 g of carbon-12. One mole of gumballs is 6.022 x 1023 gumballs. One mole of marbles is 6.022 x 1023 marbles. One mole of pretzels is ____________ pretzels.

  42. Moles and Grams are Related • The mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance is called its molar mass. • The molar mass of 1 mole of carbon is 12.01 grams. 1 mole of any element is its atomic mass.

  43. Converting Amount to Mass Determine the mass in grams of 5.50 mol of iron. • List the given and unknown values. Given: amount of iron= 5.50 mol Molar mass of iron= 55.85 g/mol Fe Unknown: mass of iron= ? g Fe

  44. So… 5.50 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe = 307 g Fe 1 mol Fe So… What is the mass in grams of each of the following? • 2.50 mol of sulfur 3. 1.80 mol of Ca 2. 1.80 mol of Ca 4. 3.20 mol of Cu

  45. Converting Mass to an Amount Determine the amount of iron present in 352 g of iron. Given: Mass of iron = 352 g Fe Molar Mass of Iron = 55.85 g/ mol Fe Unknown: Amount of iron = ? Mol Fe