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Chapter 10: A Democratic Revolution: 1800—1844. How did debates over federal power, states rights, and the authority of different branches of the federal government change the nation ’ s democratic ideals and reform its institutions?

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Chapter 10: A Democratic Revolution: 1800—1844

  • How did debates over federal power, states rights, and the authority of different branches of the federal government change the nation’s democratic ideals and reform its institutions?
  • How did government policy shaped by interest in expanding trade and national borders give rise to debates and compromises over the extension of slavery?

President Andrew Jackson


what is the american democratic revolution

What is the American Democratic Revolution?

What are the characteristics of this revolution?

How are things changing?

What are the effects of this revolution on the U.S.


Why Increased Democratization?

  • White male suffrage increased – new states introduce universal male suffrage.
  • Party nominating committees. Begun by a third party.
  • Voters chose their state’s Presidential electors.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election:
    • Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs (1832)  Republicans (1854)
    • Democrats (1828)

The New “Jackson Coalition”

  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • State Politicians – spoils system“Turn the rascals out, put our rascals in.”
  • Immigrants in the cities.

Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man”

  • Intense distrust of Eastern“establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. Notables
  • His heart & soul was with the“plain folk.”
  • Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.

The Reign of “King Mob”

The Inaugural Brawl!






1832 Tariff Conflict

  • 1828“Tariff of Abomination” reenactment signed in 1832
  • South Carolina’s reaction? – Nullification (The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, by V.P. Calhoun)
  • Jackson’s response? Military Force Bill
  • Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff? Gradual reduction (1832-42)




the nullies v jackson
John C Calhoun (VP Under Adams and Jackson) wrote South Carolina Exposition (1828)

“Concurrent Majority” – a federal law that is harmful to states can be declared null and void via a convention of the people.

Jackson’s Response – Threatened military force and “Force Bill”

“The Nullies” v Jackson

What steps were taken to avoid a military conflict?





jackson and the native americans
1828 The Cherokee Tribes of Georgia wrote and adopted a constitution with 3 branch government.

Georgia declared the Cherokee Assembly illegal (SC ruled in favor of Indians)

– state has no authority in tribal legislation

Worcester v Georgia –state has no authority in tribal legislation

Jackson’s Response:

“John Marshall had made his decision, now let him enforce it.”

How does this quote from Jackson show his increasing strength as President?

Jackson and The Native Americans
indian removal act of 1830
100,000 Indians moved from east of Mississippi

1832 – Black Hawk War

1835-42 Osceola and Florida Seminoles

1838-39 “Trail of Tears” 14,000 Cherokees, 116 days – 3,000 deaths (25%)

100 million acres given up

$68 million paid out, 32 million acres in West

Indian Removal Act of 1830
jacksonians on states rights
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)

States, not federal government, had power to enter into contracts regarding infrastructure, transportation.

Maysville Road Veto - I am not able to view [the Maysville Road Bill] in any other light than as a measure of purely local character.... It has no connection with any established system of improvements; [and] is exclusively within the limits of a State [Kentucky]....

Jacksonians on States’ Rights

Jackson’s Use of Federal Power


1830 Maysville Roadproject in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]


The National Bank Debate



the hydra of corruption the bank wars
Nicholas Biddle – President of Bank of US

Functions – print stable currency, keep federal money, control gold and silver, source of credit

1832 – Clay and Webster wanted to use the renewal of the charter to embarrass the President – if he passed the charter he would anger his followers, if he vetoed it the wealthy would be upset.

How did the veto increase the power of President?

“The Hydra of Corruption” – The Bank Wars

An 1832 Cartoon:



The Specie Circular (1836)

  • “wildcat banks.”
  • buy future federalland only with gold orsilver.
  • Jackson’s goal?

Results of the Specie Circular

  • Banknotes lose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!

the era of the common man
Social mixture

Universal Male Suffrage

Popular Campaigning

Increased Power of President (through veto)

Kitchen Cabinet

Roger Taney in Supreme Court

“The Era of the Common Man”