conquering space and domesticating sam patch expansion and the market revolution l.
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Conquering Space and Domesticating Sam Patch: Expansion and The Market Revolution. Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850. (97)

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Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850. (97)
  • The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man.” To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider the following in your response: Economic development, Politics, Reform movements (01)
  • In what ways did developments in transportation bring about economic and social change in the US in the period 1820 to 1860? (03)
  • Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing and agriculture, sparked American economic growth in the first half of the nineteenth century. Assess the validity of this statement. (89)
  • In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and increased inter-regional trade should have united Americans, but instead produced sectional division and finally disunion. Discuss with reference to the impact of improved transportation and increased inter-regional trade on the Northeast (New England and Middle Atlantic states), the South, and the West. (80)
  • Discuss the impact of the “transportation revolution,” 1820 – 1860, on the U.S. (73)
i population growth and westward expansion
I. Population Growth and Westward Expansion
  • Am pop. doubled every 23 years
    • 1790: 4 million 1810: 7 million
  • Overwhelmingly agrarian: to maintain standard of living, had to improve ag. tech or double acreage
    • Tech not keeping pace westward movement
1790-1810: needed to bring in as much land as had in all period before
    • 1810: 1 in 7 West of Appalachians
    • 1840: 1 in 3
  • Louisiana Purchase vital (doubles size US)
Most migrants native born, lower middle class
  • Tend to move due West (NE to Midwest, S to lower Midwest and SW)
  • Fed. gov wanted rapid settlement for $: required full payment in cash speculators buy up vast tracts
  • Squatters doing most of farming pre-emption law (1841): allows squatters to buy at low cost
images of life
Images of Life
  • 1) “Little House on the Prairie”: independent, self-sufficient, isolated homesteads but brought together for communal activities
  • 2) Clint Eastwood: instability, constant motion no real community; fed by “strip-farming”: belief that resources unlimited; general rudeness and violence
    • Reality somewhere in between: most worked/wanted to replicate old lives
ii dispossession of indians
II. Dispossession of Indians

A. Legacy of War of 1812

  • Collapse of Tecumseh’s pan-Indianism (Battle of Thames, War of 1812) Indians no longer able to effectively resist white settlement
  • 1817-18: First Seminole War: Andrew Jackson invades Florida to attack Seminoles Adams-Onis Treaty ceding Florida to US
    • AJ exceeds order: hunts down Indians
b five civilized tribes and the trail of tears
B. Five Civilized Tribes and the Trail of Tears
  • Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Seminole: largely assimilated
  • Farmers, built schools, developed alphabet, published newspapers, conversion, tribal Constitution based on US
  • Integration into market economy dependence (debt + alcohol) facilitates removal (sell lands, socio-cultural disruption, pop decline)
    • War, disease, malnutrition 50% decline
Logic of Fed Indian policy should have left alone, but own valuable lands + gov’t protects/supports whites (even illegal settlers)
  • 1830: Georgia throws them out
  • AJ: Removal Bill of 1830: resettle all tribes west of Miss. racial rationale
    • 1824: Monroe suggests removal as protection Indians
    • Not just AJ: before + after
Cherokees sue Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832): Marshall rules Indians cannot be removed
  • AJ: “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it.”
  • 1831-1838: Indians removed
  • 1838: Cherokee Trail of Tears: forced march to Oklahoma ¼ die
  • 1844: 3 of 4 Indians removed to West
iii transportation revolution
III. Transportation Revolution
  • Poor transportation obstacle to migration: cost transport wheat KY to NYC 3x price of sale
    • Cheaper ship PhilaLondon than PittsburghPhila
  • 1815: John C. Calhoun (SC): “Let us conquer space”
  • 4 Major stages
a turnpikes
A. Turnpikes
  • Paved roads, built by states + private companies
  • Most connected Eastern cities
    • But, National Road
  • Poor quality, expensive
b steamboats
B. Steamboats
  • Esp. impacted Miss + tributaries (Ohio)
  • Transport at 1/10 cost flatboats
  • Dangerous: snags, explosions, run aground
c canals
C. Canals
  • Boom 1820s + ’30s
    • Erie Canal (1825): Buffalo to Albany; NY Gov. DeWitt Clinton
    • Major expenditures by states: 3/4 of $200 million from 1815-1840s; far more than Fed
  • Cost reduced 20¢ to 1¢ (1 ton Buffalo NYC)
  • Eventually water system linking NYC to New Orleans
Enormous impacts
    • Canal towns: industry, pop. growth, social change, alcohol
    • Midwest: greater access resources + needs eastern industry +tech  deforestation
  • Canal boom short lived: overtaken by…
d railroads
D. Railroads
  • 1830: National system begun Baltimore and Ohio RxR (13 miles)
  • 1840: 3328 miles (2x track in Europe)
  • 1850: 9000 miles (majority in N)
  • Biggest jump transport exp. (speed) in Am. history: 4 mph to 40/50
  • Annihilated space + time (time zones)
  • Uniquely adapted to size US
iv market revolution and the machine in the garden
IV. Market Revolution and the Machine in the Garden

A. Agrarian Revolution

  • Transport rev. bound growing nation econ. transformation: western farmers switch subsistence to commercial: specialization, orient to profit, mechanize
    • NE + Mid Atlantic: terrain unable use machines move West, move cities, or dairy + fruit farmers
    • 1820: 1/3 all food for market; 1850: 50+%
South: cotton gin (1793) + northern industry (1820s) cotton
  • South most tied inter’l markets, but least affected internally: depended on outsiders for marketing + financing, capital tied up in land and esp. slaves colonial economy
  • Southerners profit motivated, but slavery made “peculiar system”
Ambivalence to Revolution:
  • Huck Finn: steamboat destroys idyllic life on raft
  • Escape to Walden Pond: Henry David Thoreau and Transcendentalists
  • Death knell of Jeffersonian yeoman farmers
    • 1800: 6 of 7 workers farmers
    • 1860: 50% farmers
    • 1990: 1.6%
  • But, “machine happy”: boom in “labor saving devices” (mechanical apple peelers)
b the american system
B. The American System
  • “Borrowed” early British technology
    • 1790 Samuel Slater textile mill
  • Eli Whitney: precision machinery for interchangeable parts (firearms, cotton gin) American system: machines make machines consumer items (clocks, watches, sewing machines)
Mechanized industry social restructuring: replace “putting out” system w/centralized factory
  • Francis Cabot Lowell (1813), power loom (water): Lowell, Mass.
    • Boston Manufacturing Company: Waltham, Mass.
  • 1817: 4 million yards cotton cloth; 1840: 323 million
  • 1840: 80,000 workers (50+% women)
    • Huge impact on South King Cotton
c taming sam patch
C. Taming Sam Patch
  • Difficulty of factory: pre-industrial sense of time
    • 1st clocks only had hour hand; 1830s 1st mass-produced home clocks
  • Rhythmic, seasonal, nature, task not clock Saint Monday
  • Rich variety of entertainments (that then affected work): Alcohol, dancing, athletics, horse races, circuses, magic, balloons, Sam Patch
    • Left work when these options available
Patch a highly-skilled mill worker, jumped off of things: bridges, flag poles, waterfalls (Niagara twice)
  • Working class hero: “possession of an art made a man independent and useful and, therefore, the sovereign equal of any other man”
  • Middle class threat: reason to fear full democracy, undermined beauty of nature (Hudson River School), passed laws against jumping
    • 6 November 1829: Upper Falls of the Genesee in Rochester, New York (100 ft), accompanied by a pet bear
    • Friday 13th: same jump, no bear, dies, age 30
Changed through: incentives + institutions: church (2nd Great Awakening: temperance, hard work, perseverance), schools (tech., time discipline), local gov’t (police)
  • 1827, Lynn, MA: Society for the Promotion of Industry, Frugality, and Temperance: hiring pact, boycotts, by-laws, truant officers, ministers alter personality entire class to further capitalist goals
  • Successful? 2 measures: 1) liquor and 2) babies
    • 1800-1860: avg. # kids 7 5.2
    • Less sex (no new birth control), less alcohol, kids econ drain in industrial society, some honestly converted