Unit I Timeline • All slides prepared by students in 8th period • Mr. Celio does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research • If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with 6 or more slides per page!
Development of Early Hominids • The earliest humans formed 3-4 million years ago. • They lived in Africa and were generally unskilled. They were nomads and followed their food throughout the African savannah. • The earliest human forms paved the way for us, and passed on simple ideas that are still used today.
Use of Stone Tools • First stone tools were created 2,500,000 years ago by homo sapiens. • These tools included simple pots and pans used for cooking and artistic tools to aid in making sculptures and other artistic forms. • The use of stone tools aided human life, and made many tasks much easier, such as cooking and sculpting.
Use of Fire • Humans first began to use fire around 500,000 years ago. • Small fires gave the early humans a source of light and heat, and aided many tasks such as cooking and metalworking.
Origin of Homo Sapiens Sapiens • Homo Sapien Sapiens began to form around 200,000 years ago. • They were the first anatomically modern humans, and were the smartest humans to date. • Homo Sapiens Sapiens were the first humans to travel throughout the world and live on every continent except for Antarctica.
Agricultural Revolution • The agricultural revolution started around 10,000 years ago. • This began the shift from hunter-gatherer societies to agricultural civilizations. • By being able to stay/live in one place, early civilizations were able to form.
Emergence of Neolithic Towns • Neolithic Towns began to form around 4,000 BCE. • These were some of the first permanent settlements. • Led to the rise of strong, early civilizations and led to the creation of tools used with agriculture.
Development of Metalworking • Early metalworking can be traced to around 4,000 BCE. • They melted metals and then put them into molds to create simple metal tools such as weapons. • Improved work conditions and increased and more efficient battle tools.
Invention of Cuneiform • First signs of cuneiform can be dated to around 3,000 BCE. • This was the first known writing system. • Cuneiform paved the way to future writing systems and provided a basis for record keeping and law codes.
Invention of Hieroglyphics • Early hieroglyphics can be dated to around 2,700 BCE. • These complex characters were the basis for the Egyptian empire and can be found throughout the empires. • The hieroglyphics were used for record keeping and as an art source. The invention of papyrus came with the emergence of hieroglyphics.
Sumerian Civilization • 4500-2270 BC • The first established civilization in the Tigris and Euphrates river valley. • Significance: Created the first written language, organized irrigation systems and the use of a specialized labor force
Bronze Age • 3300-300 BC • The Bronze Age marks the beginning of using metals like bronze and copper for tools, weapons and other objects. • Significance: The Bronze Age led us to the Iron Age
Unification of Egypt • 3000 BC • The unification of Egypt united upper Egypt and lower Egypt by Menes • Significance: It led to an age of prosperity in which the Great Pyramids were built.
Construction of Pyramids at Giza • 2560 BC • They were tombs for past pharaohs of Egypt and for storage of things that the pharaohs would need in the afterlife. • Significance: One of the oldest seven wonders of the world
Invention of the Wheel • 2500 BC • The wheel was invented in UR by the Sumerians. • Significance: It helped to transport things and is still used today.
Sargon’s Empire • 2270-2215 BC • Sargon was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire • Significance: He conquered the Sumerian city states
Epic Of Gilgamesh • 2150-2000 BC • An epic poem similar to Noah’s Ark written in Sumer • Significance: One of the earliest know works of literature.
Egyptian Middle Kingdom • 2055-1650 BC • The Middle Kingdom was the 11th-14th dynasties in transition from the Old to the New kingdoms. • Significance: Know as the golden age because of it’s stability.
Code of Hammurabi • 1700 BC • The Babylonian law code written by Hammurabi. • Significance: The first code of law ever written
Hyksos invasion of Egypt • Started around 1720-1710 BCE. • When Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos and they became very powerful until ruling all of Northern Egypt. • Significance- During their rule of Upper Egypt, they established their capital in the city of Avarius, forcing the line of Pharaohs to move to Thebes and only rule Lower Egypt.
Egyptian New Kingdom • Between 16th and 11th centuries BCE. • Also referred to as the Egyptian Empire • Period that followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. • Significance- Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.
Ramses II gains control of Palestine • Gained control during his first Syrian Campaign in 1279 BCE • He gained control and destroyed Egyptian power in Palestine and drove the Egyptians back into their old frontiers. • This ended the days of the Egyptian Empire
Building of Stonehenge • Built around 2500 BCE • Located in the English county of Wiltshire, Stonehenge is a large circular setting of standing stones. • Archeologists evidence suggests that Stonehenge was used as a burial ground.
Hittite use of Iron • Started in the 14th century BCE • The Hittites were the first Indo-European people to make and use iron. • Their use of iron Started the Iron Age.
Creation of Phoenician trading network • 11th century BCE • This trading network between the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia was re-established by the Phoenicians in the Early Iron Age. • This network brought the Phoenician Alphabet to the Greeks.
Creation of Phoenician Alphabet • Created before 1050 BCE • Their Alphabet was created when they simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent sounds. • This Alphabet was adopted by many places like Greece and made it easier to communicate.
Abraham’s covenant with Yahweh • Around 2000 BCE • When god gave Abraham land and descendants • Important to Judaism
Lived through 559-530 B.C.E Created the powerful Persian state by extending Persian control over the Medes in 550 B.C.E and years later he defeated the Lydian kingdom He entered Mesopotamia in 539 and captured Babylon and won their loyalty, he also issued an edict permitting the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem with their sacred temple objects and to rebuild their temple as well Throughout his conquest he demonstrated considerable wisdom and compassion and organization of his empire He successfully obtained their favor of the priesthoods in his conquered land by restoring temples and permitting a wide degree of religious toleration Rule of Cyrus the Great
Rule of Darius • 521-486 B.C.E • He added a new Persian province in western India • Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it • Darius organized a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the Pharaoh’s armies and secured the lands • Darius’s power depended on the military
Creation of Zoroastrianism • It emerged from a common prehistoric Indo-Iranian religious system dating back to the early 2nd millennium • Zoroaster was the creator and did not introduce a new god but taught that Ahuramazda, who had long been one of the Iranians’ deities, was the only god and that his religion was the only perfect one • It spread throughout the Persian empire because of its acceptance of the Great kings
Aryan Invasion • Aryans were apart of the extensive group of Indo-European speaking people who inhabited vast areas • Aryan Invasions were thought to be the reason why the Harappan Civilization came to an end • The Aryan Invasion on India affected India in many ways such as the Aryans brought the caste system, with Aryan rule agriculture expanded rapidly with the invention of the iron plow, • They brought the Vedas which were sacred texts in Hinduism
Solomon’s Reign • King of the Hebrews in Jerusalem from 971-931B.C • Sinned due to the amount of wives and children he had. • Spread the word of the Lord by teachings. • Married the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh. • Controlled all of Jerusalem during his reign. • Set the Jews free of slavery.
David’s rule Israel • Between 1010 and 970 BCE • He ruled and united the people of Israel and led them to victory in battle. • His rule paved the way for his Solomon to build the Holy Temple.
Israel destroyed by the Assyrians • In 721 BC, the Assyrians raided the Israelite capital at Samaria. • Southern Israel such as Judah, was left to fend for itself. • The capture of Israel was no challenge and almost no Assyrian men were killed. • Their goal was to kill all the Jews.
Babylon Captivity of Israelites • Captured in between 586-538 BC by the Babylonian Empire and used as slaves for building, working and other deeds. • According to the Bible, there was 3 deportations of Jews and Israelites to Babylon. • The Jews thought of it as a turning point in their religion as they were saved in Egypt previously and it was a chore to Yahweh for sinning after the release of slavery in Egypt. • It was predicted that they would fall to slavery in Babylon.
Creation of Persian Empire • Otherwise known as the Achaemenid Empire. • Established in 550 BC by Cyrus the Great. • Construction first started in 515 BC at Persepolis. • Greatest leader was Cyrus the Great. • Had a monarch type government in which one person lead the whole empire (Cyrus the Great). • The last king was Darius the Third. • Empire is ended once Darius the Third. • It is now modern day Iran.
Harappan Civilization • Located in the Indus Valley near the Fertile Crescent. • Had elaborately planned cities such as Mohenjo-daro. • Took advantage of the river system and used an irrigation style farming technique which was an excellent way of efficient farming. • Discovered a weight system and created pottery such as small figurines, rings and other crafts. • Ceramics and shell working was popular in the Harappan culture. It provided a sense of style and divided the Elite from the Middle and Lower class.
Creation of Hinduism • Hinduism emerged from the beliefs of the Aryan people. • Includes sacred texts such as the Vedas • Emerged in India at around 3500 B.C.E • Religious beliefs in ancient times was the ideal of asceticism • The thoughts of the Dharma were a big part of the creation of Hinduism
Conquest of India by Alexander the Great • Alexandrian conquest of India was only a brief interruption • It played a formative role because after his departure the rise of the first dynasty to control much of the region emerged • 327 B.C.E.
The Mauryan Empire • Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire • The capital of the empire was at Pataliputra in the Ganges river valley • King pocessed a large army and secret police • Empire was divided into provinces that were ruled by governors • 324-301 B.C.E.
The Arthasastra • Highly centralized and even despotic government • “It is power and power alone which, only when exercised by the king with impartiality, and in proportion to guilt, over his son or his enemy, maintains both his world and the next” • The Mauryan Empire-324-301 B.C.E.
Adoption of the Caste System • Aryan people formed this caste system • The Caste System • Priests , warriors, commoners, peasants, and the untouchables • The Caste System was harsh and strengthened social structure of India • It was very hard to move up the Caste System • 1500-1000 B.C.E.
Creation of Jainism • Believes in non-violence, non-stealing, and truthfulness • Founded by Mahavira • Resembles Buddhism in rejecting the reality of the material world • 269-232 B.C.E.
The Shang Dynasty • Predominantly agricultural society rule by and aristocratic class, who’s major occupation war • Villages were organized in clans and classes were differentiated with the poor working for elite families • Best known for their mastery of the art of bronze casting, fairly sophisticated writing system • 16th century B.C.E.
Zhou Dynasty • They overthrew the Shang Dynasty • Located their capital in their home territory near the present-day city of Xian • Mandate of Heaven was used to determine the rulers • Divided kingdom into territories • Advances in agriculture allowed Chinas population to reach 20 million people • Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism were developed • 11th century B.C.E.
Development of Chinese Writing • Started when civilization started in 3000 B.C. • People could keep records • Consists of picture-like characters that represent an idea • Chinese characters haven’t changed much since then as far as we know
Shang Bronze working • The Shang Dynasty lasted from 1570-1045 B.C. • During that time, they mastered the art of bronze working • Bronze was more advanced than anything else; bronze was used for food containers and ceremonial rites for ancestral purposes
Confucianism • Confucian matured and started spreading the word at 551 BCE • Confucian provided a doctrine to the nation building a social organization for China • During the Han dynasty, it was altered to State Confucianism, which was a combination of Legalism and Confucianism
Daoism • 6th century BCE • It was basically an easier form of Confucianism • During the Zhou dynasty, it was very popular • It was a frame work for popular spiritualistic beliefs among the common people
Legalism • 300 BCE to 200 BCE • Unlike Confucianism, they had harsh laws and punishments. • They used fear instead of the idea of reward as a motivation for people to follow the ruler.