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Unit I
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  1. Unit I Fourth Quarter Review Project Sophia Oshanani

  2. Unit I Vocab Words: An Ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds. Hieroglyphics: Satrap: A governor of a province in the Persian Empire. In Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after Enlightenment. Nirvana: A tall reed that grows in the Nile delta, used by the ancient Egyptians to make a paper like material for writing on. Papyrus: In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding. Reincarnation: A road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia. Royal Road: Cuneiform: A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.

  3. Unit I Vocab Words Continued: Torah: The first five books of the Hebrew Bible- the most sacred writings in the Jewish Tradition. Yin and Yang: In Chinese thought, the two powers that govern the natural rhythms of life. Loess: A fertile deposit of windblown soil. A member of a group that has no permanent home, wandering from place to place in search of food and water. Nomad: A period in human history, beginning around 3000 B.C. in some areas, during which people began using bronze rather than copper or stone, to fashion tools and weapons. Bronze Age: Filial Piety: Respect shown by children for their parents and elders. Domestication: The taming of animals for human use.

  4. Unit I Vocab Words Continued: A form of trade in which people exchange goods and services without the use of money. Barter: One of the four classes of people in the social system of the Aryans who settled in India- priests, warriors, peasants or traders, and non-Aryan laborers or craftsmen. Caste: A payment made by a weaker power to a stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and security. Tribute: In Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth. Karma: A massive structure with a rectangular base and four triangular sides, like those that were built in Egypt as burial places for Old Kingdom pharaohs. Pyramid: Dharma: In Hinduism and Buddhism, the universal laws that allows humans to be happy. A king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader. Pharaoh:

  5. Unit I Vocab Words Continued: A tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple. Ziggurat: A mutual promise or agreement-especially an agreement between God and the Hebrew people as recorded in the Bible. Covenant: In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe. Enlightenment: A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit. City-State:

  6. Required Vocab Words: AD/CE: Anno Domini Arable: Land suitable for growing crops. BC/BCE: Before Christ/Before Common Era. Bureaucracy: A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of the government. Civilization: A form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology. An economic system in which the government makes all economic decisions. Command Economy:

  7. Required Vocab Words Continued: The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another. Cultural Diffusion: A people’s unique way of life, as shown by its tools, customs, arts and ideas. Culture: A government controlled by its citizens, either directly or though representatives. Democracy: Desertification: The process in which arable land becomes a desert. Dictatorship: A government controlled by a dictator. Domestication: The taming of animals for human use.

  8. Required Vocab Words Continued: The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties. Dynastic Cycle: A series of rulers from a single family. Dynasty: Empire: A political unit in which a number of people or countries are controlled by a single ruler. Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s ethnic group is superior. Golden Age: A time of peace and prosperity with little to no war. Interdependence: Mutual dependence between individuals or groups.

  9. Required Vocab Words Continued: In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority. Mandate of Heaven: Market Economy: Economic system that relies on exchange of goods. Migration: The act of moving from one place to settle in another. Economic system in which some businesses are privately owned. Mixed Economy: Monotheism: The belief in a single god. Monsoon: A wind that shifts in direction at certain times of each year.

  10. Required Vocab Words Continued: A thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality. Philosopher: Polytheism: The belief in many gods. One of the professional record keepers in early civilizations. Scribe: The development of skills in a particular kind of work, such as trading or record keeping. Specialization: Technology: The ways in which people apply knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs. Traditional Economy: An economic system in which communities use primitive tools and hunt food to survive.

  11. Hinduism: Key Beliefs: • Reincarnation • Karma • Goal is Moksha Gods: • Brahma is creator • Vishnu is protector • Shiva is destroyer Sacred Literature: • Vedas • Upanishads

  12. Buddhism: Founder: • Siddhartha Guatama Key Beliefs: • 4 Noble Truths • Eight Fold Path • Reincarnation • Goal is Nirvana Sacred Literature: • Sutras

  13. Judaism: Gods: • Monotheistic • God is Yahweh Sacred Literature: • Torah Ethics/Moral Code: • 10 Commandments • 1-4 deal with relationship with God • 5-10 deal with relationship with each other

  14. Assyrian Empire: • Originally farmed to survive. Methods Used to Win Battles: • Soldiers wore metal or leather armor • They carried iron-tipped spears or iron swords • They used troops for ambushing enemies. Conquered (850-650 B.C.): • Mesopotamia • Syria • Palestine • Modern day Turkey • Modern day Egypt

  15. Philosophies of China: Confucianism: Legalism: Daoism: • Founder: Hanfeizi (Li Si) • Book: Hanfeizi • Social Order: • Efficient and powerful government control social order • Ideas About Government: • Many laws with harsh punishments • Rewards for good • Government controls all • Founder: Laozi • Book: The Way of Virtue • Social Order: • Key to harmony is natural order • Ideas About Government: • Best Government has the fewest laws • Founder: Confucius • Book: Analects • Social Order • Five Relationships • Filial Piety • Family is more important than individual • Ideas About Government: • Farmers are important • Bureaucracy • Education is important • Supported the Mandate of Heaven

  16. Dynasties of China: Zhou: Qin: Han: • 1027 B.C. • Important Events: • China broke into warring states • Important Achievements • Mandate of Heaven • Philosophies: Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism • 221 B.C. • Important Events: • Shi Huangdi: Autocratic ruler • Important Achievements • Legalism as philosophy • Building of the Great Wall of China begins • 206 B.C. - 221 A.D. • Important Events: • Silk Road opens up • Important Achievements • Confucianism grows as philosophy of choice • Advances in engineering

  17. Important Achievements: Set of written laws explaining the penalties for certain actions. It was important because it was the first set of written laws. Code of Hammurabi: First written language of the ancient civilizations. People were able to communicate through the use of symbols and pictures. Hieroglyphics: These elaborate structures were built as burial places for deceased pharaohs. They began the architectural advancements of the ancient civilizations. Pyramids:

  18. Important Achievements: A social class system used to separate members of different classes. Caste System: Phonics: The Phoenicians created a system to help reading and writing. People went from believing in Polytheism, which is the belief in many gods, to believing in Monotheism, the belief in one powerful god. Monotheism:

  19. Important People: Created a system of laws that allowed harsh punishments for crime. Hammurabi: Confucius: Created the philosophy Confucianism which became the philosophy of China. Became the Autocratic ruler of the Qin dynasty of China. Shi Huangdi:

  20. Important People: Founded the Persian Empire and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Cyrus: Darius: Ruled with absolute power, built a system of money, and introduced standard money. Siddhartha Guatama: Founder of the Buddhism religion.

  21. Questions: What is the definition of Nirvana? 3) Which Dynasty of China used Legalism as their philosophy? • The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another. • A social class system • The release from pain and suffering achieved after Enlightenment. • A time of peace and prosperity with little to no war. Zhou Qin Han 4) Which philosophy’s book was the Analects? Confucianism Legalism Daoism 2) Which religion believed in the four noble truths and the 8 fold path? 5) Buddhism was founded by Buddhism Judaism Hinduism Confucianism Jesus God Yahweh Siddhartha Guatama

  22. Questions: 9) The Code of Hammurabi is a 6) The Torah is the book of which religion? Language Book Story Set of written laws Judaism Christianity Hinduism Buddhism 7) Monotheism is the belief in 10) Shi Huangdi ruled the No gods Many gods One God Zhou dynasty Qin dynasty Han dynasty 8) Polytheism is the belief in 11) The goal of Hinduism is No gods Many gods One God Reincarnation Moksha Dharma

  23. Questions: 12) A ______ was one of the professional record keepers in early civilizations. 15) Enlightenment was believed by the ______ Scribe King Messenger Philosopher Hindus Jews Muslims Buddhists 13) What is the belief that one’s ethnic group is superior to others? 16) A fertile deposit of windblown soil is Arable land Loess Nomad Erosion Legalism Confucianism Ethnocentrism Judaism 17) Numbers 1-4 of the 10 commandments deal with 14) A ziggurat is part of a _____ temple Sumerian Assyrian Egyptian Muslim Relationship with each other Respecting parents and elders Religion Relationship with god

  24. Questions: 22) How did the Assyrians originally survive? 18) The people of Judaism believe in Bought food Fought in wars Traded with other areas Farmed One god Many gods Two gods No gods 23) The Way of Virtue is the book for which philosophy? 19) The Hindu god Brahma is the Protector Destroyer Creator Daoism Confucianism Legalism 20)The Hindu god Shiva is the 24) Which is not an idea of Legalism government? Creator Destroyer Protector Laws with harsh punishments Rewards for good Best government has fewest laws Government controls all 21) Which of these areas did the Assyrians NOT conquer between 850-650 B.C.? 25) Government controlled by its citizens is Mesopotamia Iran Syria Palestine Democracy Monarchy Dictatorship Theocracy

  25. Timeline of the History of the World

  26. Map of Mesopotamia

  27. Primary Source: Code of Hammurabi “If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.” “If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.” “If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.”