Unit 2 Timeline 600-1450
WARNING!! • All slides prepared by high school students • Ms. Oliver does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research. • If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with six or more slides per page!
Development of Swahili • Date: 1100 BCE • Description: Swahili language is a blend of Arabic and Bantu languages. It was developed in Eastern Africa to improve trade and communication. • Significance: Swahili is significant because it made trade easier along the Mediterranean and improved communication.
Origins of the Olmec1000 BCE Description The Olmec civilization was a Meso-American civilization in Mexico. They lived in the low lands of south central Mexico. Significance They were the first Meso-American civilization in Mexico. Laid a lot of the foundation for later Meso- American civilization
Origin of the Mayans 1st Millennium BCE Description The Mayans were an ancient Meso-American civilization, and one of the biggest and most successful of their time. Significance The Mayans are known for their fully developed written language. As well as their advanced math and astronomical systems.
Expansion of Silk Road trade • Date: 1000 B.C.E. • Description: Because of luxury products, roads known as the silk roads developed from the China to the Mediterranean area. Therefore, this resulted in the diffusion of products. • Significance: This improved roads and helped enhance trade from China, The Middle East, and the Mediterranean. Different civilizations could now specialize in products and trade with other civilizations.
Establishment of Ethiopia • Date: 1000 BCE • Description: Ethiopia was established in 1st century BC with the kingdom of Axum. Ethiopia is located in Eastern Africa. • Significance: The establishment of Ethiopia was significant because it brought more culture and trading to Africa. The kingdom of Axum was prosperous, as it brought international trade, language, and architecture.
Bantu Migration • Date: 1000 BCE – 500 CE • Description: • Caused by the development of agriculture and the use of iron which allowed people to live in different places. Started in Eastern Nigeria. • Significance: • One of the largest expansions in human history, spread languages
Kushan Kingdom • Date: 590BCE-200CE • Description: the Kushans originated from Egypt attempting to continue their culture after the fall of the New Kingdom. Afterward, it moved its capital and became a kingdom, continuing for several centuries. • Significance: By combining Egyptian culture with their own, it further diversified Africa.
Origins of Buddhism • Date: Around 580 B.C.E Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama. The original beliefs of Buddhism was that everything in life was sorrow and suffering, and the only way to stop the suffering was by following the right path and achieving Nirvana. Significance: It’s an ongoing belief that influenced the lives of many and brought peace.
Building of the Grand Canal • Date: 486 B.C.E.- 610 A.D. • Description: The Grand Canal was designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin more than 500 miles to the south. • Significance: The Canal allowed for the movement of peoples and goods in the direction of the great river systems that were essential to China’s agrarian base ran from west to east.
Adoption of the “equal field system” • Date: 485 B.C.E. • Description: This was a system of land distribution where land would be given to the middle and lower class members of society. • Significance: As a result of the equal field system, upper class families did not own a surplus of land. It made sure that there was not a huge gap from the wealthy and the lower class.
Schism Of Buddhism • Date: 350 B.C.E There was a split of Buddhism between the Theravada and Mahayana schools. They split because they both believed in different beliefs and teachings of Buddhism. The Theravada admitted the humanity of the Buddha, while the Mahayana’s believed that he was a deity in three forms of body; Body of Essence, body of bliss, and body of transformation. Significance: It brought different ideas to the Buddhism belief.
Building of Teotihuacan 200 BCE Description A city in Meso-America that is the home of one of the largest pyramids in the world. Significance It is the home to the pyramid of the sun, one of the biggest in the world.
End Mauryan Empire • Date: 185 BCE • Description: The end of this Golden Age in India was due to the death of the 2nd emporer which weakened the Muaryan Empire. • Significance: The result of the fall of the Mauryan Empire caused the rise of the Andhra Dynasty for hundreds of years. This had contributed to modern day Andhra Pradesh state of India.
Chinese Conquest of Vietnam • Date: 100 B.C.E Since Vietnam was located in the coastal region south of China, the Chinese ruled. China took Vietnam during the Han dynasty. A thousand years later, Vietnam became independent. Significance: Vietnam was influenced by another culture, China, which helped spread Chinese beliefs and ideas farther.
Chinese conquest of Korea and Japan(first century C.E.) Description-During these conquests, the Chinese gained great power and wealth by completely dominating and winning the wars against these countries. Significance-It is because of these conquests the Chinese culture was spread throughout Eastern Asia and China increased in size and power.
Resurrection of the Civil Service Exams • Date: 100 B.C.E. • Description: The civil service came into political use once again and were a series of tests that determined political office. • Significance: Over 130,000 people received jobs as a result of Wudi’s reforms before the Han Dynasty, and ordinary people could receive job opportunities for their loyalty to Wudi.
Around 100 C.E.(Buddhism arrives in China) Description-Buddhism was brought to China around the first or second century, probably by missionaries and merchants traveling along the Silk Road. Significance-It was accepted by ordinary people and the high classes. It eventually became one of the most popular religions in China and greatly influenced their culture and way of life.
Fall of the Han Empire • Date: 221 C.E. • Description: The Han dynasty was a dynasty in ancient China that was established after the Qin dynasty fell. This tried to move away from legalist ideas of Qin Shi Huangdi. • Significance: Once again, this empire moved away from the harsh punishments, strict control, and legalist ideas. It alleviated the amount of taxes and gave land to the poor. The Han empire, along with Rome, were the two biggest empires in the world.
Rise of monasticism 250 Christian Monasticism is a practice which began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, including those in the Old Testament. It has come to be regulated by religious rules. Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms monks (men) and nuns (women). In modern English, they are also known by the gender-neutral term "monastic's." Monasticism helped in the development of the church, and discouraged Christian propaganda.
Gupta Empire • Date: 320 CE • Description: The first emporer was Chandra Gupta who rose to power by marrying the daughter of an old royal family. He took the title of ‘Great king of kings”. The Gupta empire had included the central area of Ganges as well as Magadha. • Significance: The son of Chandra Gupta had expanded the empire of 40 years of conquest , controlling a significant part of India. India had also contributed to achievements in fields such as art, literature, religious thought, science, and mathematics.
Conquest of Kush by Axum • Date: 350 CE • Description: • Trade routes shifted to Axum, and as a result, Kush launched an offensive on Axum. Axum retaliated and burned Kush to the ground. • Significance: • This brought about the total collapse of Kush as a civilization.
Clovis’ conversion to Christianity 469 AD Clovis’ wife urged Clovis to believe in the Lord he refused but a few years later, While Clovis was in battle he prayed to the Christian God for help in defeating the Alemanni. The odds were against him and yet the Alemanni retreated. From them on he urged his people to convert to Christianity A major European power adopted Christianity. Without that happening, Christianity might never have come to dominate Europe.
Reign of Justinian Date: 527 C.E. Definition: Justinian and his becoming of an emperor as well as his restoration of the Roman Empire and the simplification of Roman law. Significance: As a result of Justinian becoming emperor of the byzantine empire, the roman empire revived under a new name. Justinian not just brought it back, he made it ten times better with his new body of civil law, which was the revision and simplification of roman law
Founding of the Sui Dynasty • Date: Early 580s C.E. • Description: This was a dynasty led by Wendi, an emperor who was from noble birth. Yangdi, his son, took over the throne after killing his father. • Significance: They restored political stablility by recovering a civil service system and got rid of the Nomadic invaders. The Sui dynasty completed the construction of the Great Canal during the reign of Yangdi.
Arrival or Islamic traders in Southeast Asia. • Date: 600’s Using the Silk Roads in Asia, Islamic traders traveled and exchanged goods using those roads. They traveled on land and major ocean trade routes to trade spices, incense, ideas/beliefs, and other goods. Significance: By going through the trade routes in Asia, Islamic traders spread their ideas(cultural diffusion) and brought their religion to new places.
Muhammad’s revelation610 CE Description He was an average beleiver of Islam, one night when he was 40 he heard the voice of an angel, Gabriel telling him he was a messenger of God. Significance Once he was told he was a messenger of God he traveled around the world and spread Islam, he is put in the same category as Jesus, Abraham, and Moses.
Overthrow of the Sui by the Tang • Date: 618 C.E. • Description: The Sui dynasty was ensued by the Tang dynasty after many weak rulers took over the throne after Yangdi’s assassination. • Significance: Because of the fall of the Sui Dynasty by Turkic nomads and Yangdi’s assassination, one of Yangdi’s officials, Li Yuan, the Duke of the Tang, took over the throne.
The Hegira • Date: 622 • Description • When Muhammad and his followers left for Medina because of threats from the Meccan rulers. • Significance • The hegira allowed Muhammad and his followers to practice and spread Islam in Medina.
Muhammad’s Conquest of Mecca • Date:630 • Description: • 1,000 of Muhammad’s followers and him returned to Mecca. The leaders of Mecca surrendered. Muhammad destroyed the idols in the Ka’aba. • Mecca pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and many converted to Islam • Significance: • Converted the city of Mecca which started the expansion of the Islamic faith • The Ka’aba became the focal point of pilgrimage
Death of Muhammad • Date:632 • Description: • Died unexpectedly at the age of 62. Died without choosing a successor • Significance: • Created succession problems for the next caliph • Had created a religion that would spread greatly after his death
Arab expansion • Date: 632-750 • Description: • The Arabs expanded over the Byzantine empire, Persian empire(Asia minor) and North Africa. • Significance: • It spread the islam faith and led to the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty, after the Umayyads were overthrown.
Battle of yarmuk • Date: 636 • Description: • This battle was fought between the Muslims and the byzantine army. It took place near the Yarmuk river. The muslims defeated the byzantine army. • Significance: • The battle later lead to the muslims taking poccession of the byzantine province in syria
Arab take over of the Nile Valley • Date: 639 CE • Description: Through a series of battles, the Rashidun, or the Muslim armies invaded the Nile Valley and conquered Europe and the rest of the Nile Valley • Significance: The Arab brought Islam to Egypt ; a cultural center of Northern Africa, allowing the religion to be spread farther throughout the continent.
645(Taiki Reforms) Description-a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kotoku. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shotoku, and the defeat of the Soga Clan. Significance-These reforms united Japan, but their true aim was to bring about greater centralization and to enhance the power of the imperial court system based on the governmental structure of China.
Spread of Islam to North Africa • Date: 647 CE • Description: The Umayyad dynasty spread Islam throughout Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia (North Africa). • Significance: This is important because Islam dominated Africa and spread it throughout the West, East & North. Arab culture was prominent throughout Africa.
Assassination of muhammadali • Date: 661 • Description: • People thought that Ali assassinated the caliph before him, Uthman. • Significance: • Led to a factional struggle that broke out within the Muslim leadership.
Creation of umayyad dynasty • Date:661 • Description: • Created hereditary system and moved capital of Muslims to Damascus • Abandoned the simple life of earlier caliphs and surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremonies similar to non-Muslims rulers • Significance: • Empire grew/expanded to Northern African and into Spain • Problems with succession emerged which split Muslim society into Shiite and Sunnis
Hussein’s revolt against the umayyads • Date: 680 • Description: • Revolt let by Hussein, disputed the legitimacy of the Umayyad and incited his supporter to rise up against the Umayyad. Hussein and his supporters lost. • Significance: • this led to the schism between the shi’ite and the sunnis.
710-784(Nara Period) Description-A period in Japanese history that was focused on agriculture, nature, and was centered around villages. Most of the villagers followed a religion based on the worship of natural and ancestral spirits called kami. Significance-Some of Japan’s most important literary monuments were written during this time, and the permanent establishments of Buddhism also happened in this era.
Development of Trans-Saharan Trade Routes • Date: 8th – 16th century CE • Description: • Gold-salt trade route, located in Africa, north had salt, south had gold, and civilizations in the middle controlled the trade. • Significance: • Determined the dominance (power) of civilizations in Africa
Development of paper/woodblock printing • Date:700s • Description: • Block printing was the use of separate wooden blocks on a single page that were placed in order to create the needed words. • Significance: • The development of block printing ultimatley led to the invention of the movable type and other printing advancements.
Muslim Arrival in India • Date: 711 Muslims/Islam came to India beginning with trade. Traders carried their religion and brought it to India. Significance: Since they were bringing ideas and religion, it affected the people already living in India, and soon Muslims would rule.
720(Japan’s 17 article Constitution) Description-It was a document authorized by Prince Shotoku and focused on the Buddhist morals and virtues that were expected of government officials and emperors. Significance-It ensured a smooth running state, and it is one of the earliest moral dictatorial documents in History.
Battle of Tours • Date: 732 • Description • This battle was fought between the Franks, led by Charles Martel, and the invading Islamic army. It took place near the city of Tours, France. The Franks defeated the Islamic army and killed their leader. • Significance • This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula into Europe and is credited with preserving Christianity as the main religion of Europe.
Establishment of the Abbasid Dynasty • Date: 750 CE • Description: • Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs in Islam • Significance: • They strengthened the divide between Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims by converting to Shia Islam and supporting the Shi’ites
Fall of the Tang • Date: Mid 700’s • Description: The Tang fell because of Chinese Rebels. These people burned the capital down and the last living emperor died. Therefore, there were nobody to carry the throne. • Significance: As a result of the fall of the Tang dynasty, the Song took over once again and had a strengthened empire. During this time, they achieved great wealth and prosperity.
Building of Baghdad • Date: 762 CE • Description: • Capital of the Abbasid city located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Cteiphon • Significance: • It was a major Islamic cultural, commercial, and intellectual center.
Rule of Harun al-Rashid • Date: 786-809 • Description: • Most famous of the Abbasid caliphs renowned for sumptuous and costly living dependent upon Persian advisors early in reign. • Significance: • His death led to civil wars over succession, he inspired the book of 1001 Nights.