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NUTRITION I & II: METABOLIC AND DIETARY ASPECTS. D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY. NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION. ENERGY SOURCES ENERGY METABOLISM REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM BASAL METABOLIC RATE. ENERGY.

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NUTRITION I & II: METABOLIC AND DIETARY ASPECTS


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    1. NUTRITION I & II: METABOLIC AND DIETARY ASPECTS D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY

    2. NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION • ENERGY SOURCES • ENERGY METABOLISM • REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM • BASAL METABOLIC RATE

    3. ENERGY • THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK • THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE • THE NUTRITIONAL CALORIE IS 1000 CALORIES OR THE KILOCALORIE

    4. ENERGY BALANCE WITH RESPECT TO THE BODY INPUT - OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION (CONTINUITY EQUATION E/t = 2E) ( ) OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT

    5. STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION • NUETRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH • POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT - ENERGY IS STORED AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT • NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN OUTPUT EXCEEDS INTAKE- ENERGY STORES ARE DEPLETED

    6. FOOD AS STORED FUEL • 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS

    7. ENERGY INPUT • 50% GOES TO ATP • 50% GOES TO HEAT • CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN

    8. FOOD AS FUEL • CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G • PROTEIN 4 CAL/G • FAT 9 CAL/GRAM • ETHANOL 7 CAL/G

    9. FOOD INTAKE • CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS • FEEDING CENTERS • SATIETY CENTERS

    10. CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE • POORLY UNDERSTOOD • OBESITY IS TOO MUCH STORED FAT • LIPOSTATIC THEORY • GI DISTENSION THEORY • GLUCOSTATIC THEORY • CCK SECRETION THEORY • PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES

    11. FOOD AS STORED FUEL • 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS

    12. THE METABOLIC RATE METABOLIC RATE = ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour)

    13. FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE • EXERCISE • FOOD INTAKE • SHIVERING • ANXIETY

    14. GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME • FLIGHT OR FIGHT • EPINEPHRINE • CRH-ACTH-CORTISOL • RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE • VASOPRESSIN • COORDINATED BY HYPOTHALAMUS • CAN BE INDUCED PSYCHOSOCIALLY

    15. ANABOLISM VS CATABOLISM • BUILD UP VS BREAKDOWN OF LARGE MOLECULES • ANABOLISM REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP) • CATABOLISM:ENERGY PRODUCTION

    16. THE ROLE OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS IN METABOLISM • COFACTORS FOR ENZYMES (MOST WATER SOLUABLE VITAMINS)

    17. WATER SOLUABLE VITAMINS • B1 (THIAMINE): • B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) • NIACIN • C (ASCORBIC ACID) • FOLIC ACID • B6 ( PYRIDOXINE, PYRIDOXAL, PYRIDOXAMINE) • B12 • PANTHOTHENIC ACID • BIOTIN

    18. FAT SOLUABLE VITAMINS • ABSORBED ALONG WITH FATS • VITAMIN A: PRECURSOR OF RHODOPSIN • VITAMIN D: CALCIUM METABOLISM • VITAMIN E : LIPID ANTIOXIDANT • VITAMIN K: BLOOD CLOTTING

    19. CONTROL OF FUEL METABOLISM • GLYCOGENESIS • GLYCOGENOLYSIS • GLUCONEOGENESIS • PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • PROTEIN DEGRADATION • FAT SYNTHESIS • FAT BREAKDOWN

    20. GLYCOGENESIS • GLYCOGEN IS A BRANCHED POLYMER OF GLUCOSE ATORED IN THE LIVER (ABOUT 100g) AND MUSCLE CELLS(ABOUT 200g). ENOUGH FOR PART OF A DAY. • SYNTHESIS IS BY SEPARATE PATHWAY FROM BREAKDOWN • HIGHLY REGULATED BY INSULIN

    21. GLYCOGENOLYSIS • BREAKDOWN OF GLYCOGEN STORES INTO GLUCOSE • REGULATES BLOOD GLUCOSE BETWEEN MEALS • HOMONALLY CONTROLLED (GLUCAGON, EPINEHRINE, NOREPINEPHRINE AND CLUCOCORTICOIDS)

    22. GLUCONEOGENESIS • PRUCURSORS ARE 3 AND 4 CARBON COMPOUNDS • VIA FRUCTOSE PHOSPHATE • GLUCAGON CONTROLLED • MAIN PRECURSOR ALANINE AND OTHER AA

    23. PROTEIN DEGRADATION • USUALLY BALANCED BY SYNTHESIS • NO ENERGY STORES IN FORM OF PROTEIN • CAN BE ENHANCED BY GLUCAGON AND OTHER HORMONES LEADING TO GLUCONEOGENESIS

    24. FAT SYNTHESIS • GLUCOSE - FATTY ACID CYCLE • FATTY ACIDS PRODUCED CONSTANTLY IN ADIPOSE TISSUE. • BECOME FFA OR BECOME TRIGLYCERIDES DEPENDING ON -GLYCEROL PHOSPHATE FROM GLUCOSE OXIDATION

    25. GLUCOSE - FATTY ACID CYCLE ADIPOCYTE MYOCYTE FFA CO2 FATTY ACIDS (-) KETONES BLOOD (-) GLUCOSE-6-P TRIGLYCERIDES GLUCOSE

    26. FAT BREAKDOWN • MOST CONCENTRATED ENERGY STORE • ONE DAY’S NEEDS CAN BE MET BY LESS THAN 250g (70kg MAN 40 DAYS) • STORED AS TRIGLYCERIDES IN ADIPOSE TISSUE AND MUSCLE • ENHANCED BY GLUCAGON • TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE • GLYCEROL MUST PASS TO BLOOD TO BE RECYCLED

    27. BASAL METABOLIC RATE • BODY’S “IDLING SPEED” • DIRECT CALORIMETERY • INDIRECT CALORIMETERY • (SEE LAB NOTES FROM DEC.2)

    28. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • USUALLY BALANCED WITH BREAKDOWN • INSULIN INCREASES SYNTHESIS • GLUCAGON IS ANTAGONISTIC

    29. VALINE THREONINE ISOLEUCINE LEUCINE HISTADINE (IN INFANTS) METHIONINE, PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN LYSINE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

    30. PROTEIN QUALITY • ONLY 20% OF THE RDA NEEDS TO BE COMPLETE PROTEIN (11 GRAMS FOR MALES 9 GRAMS FOR FEMALES …A LITTLE MORE THAN SUPPLIED BY A GLASS OF MILK) • MORE DIVERSITY IS THE KEY THOUGH: 60% RDA FROM GRAIN, 35% FROM LEGUMES, 5% FROM GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    31. PLANTS AND PROTEIN QUALITY

    32. PLANTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE • 65% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY WORLD WIDE • 32% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY IN THE US

    33. PROTEIN SOURCES-EXCEPTIONS • SOYBEANS • QUINONA • SPINACH • HAVE THE SAME QUALITY AS MILK

    34. INCOMPLETE PROTEINS NEEDED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS • 2 2/3 CUPS COOKED WHEAT • 3 CUPS COOKED RICE • 5 3/4 SLICES BASIC BREAD • 3 CUPS DICED POTATOES • 1/3 CUP SOY SPREAD • 1/2 CUP WHEAT GERM • 2 3/4 CUPS RICE WITH 1/3 CUP COOKED PEAS

    35. SOME DISEASES LINKED WITH DIET • CANCER • HEART DISEASE • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE • OBESITY • DIVERTICULITIS

    36. FOOD INGREDIENTS AND DISEASE • REFINED SUGAR • FAT • SALT • LOW IN FIBER

    37. CANCER AND DIET: PHYTOCHEMICALS • FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS • IMMUNE FUNCTION • HORMONE BALANCE • DETOXIFICATION

    38. CANCER AND DIET N.R.C.RECOMMENDATIONS • EAT LESS FAT (30% OR LESS 0F TOTAL CALORIES) • EAT FRUITS, VEGITABLES, AND WHOLE-GRAIN CEREAL FOODS EVERY DAY (ESPECIALLY THOSE HIGH IN VITAMINS A AND C) • AVOID HIGH DOSE SUPPLIMENTS OF VITAMINS OR OTHER NUTRIENTS • ALCOHOL ONLY IN MODERATION

    39. SOME WAYS TO CUT DOWN ON FAT • EAT MORE VEGETARIAN MEALS • EAT MORE FRESH FRUIT OR YOGURT INSTEAD OF DESSERTS • USE YOGURT AS DRESSING INSTEAD OF OIL • USE FRESH HERBS INSTEAD OF BUTTER (AND INSTEAD OF SALT)

    40. TYPES OF VEGETARIAN DIETS • VEGAN: NO ANIMAL PRODUCTS (NEED DIETARY SUPPLIMENTS AND VARIED PROTEIN SOURCES) • LACTO: +DAIRY PRODUCTS • LACTO-OVO: +EGGS

    41. FIBER • ROUGHLY SPEAKING, EVERYTHING IN PLANT FOODS OUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES CAN NOT BREAK DOWN • NURTURES AEROBIC BACTERIA IN GUT • SOLUABLE FIBER REDUCES INSULIN NEED IN DIABETICS • CHELATORS-INCREASE NEED FOR MINERALS

    42. TYPES OF FIBER • PECTINS: IN CELL WALL OF FRUITS, BIND BILE SALTS • GUMS: STICKY SUBSTANCES EXUDED BY PLANTS, LOWER CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE AND SLOW SUGAR ABSORPTION • CELLULOSE: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK AND TOXIN ELIMINATION • HEMICELLULOSES: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK • LIGNIN: ROOT VEGETABLES, BULK

    43. EFFECT ON MICROFLORA • LOWER TOTAL ANAEROBIC, IN PARTICULAR, CLOSTRIDIUM • DIET CAN ALTER THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE FLORA • MEAT AND UNREFINED SUGAR INCREASES UNWANTED BACTERIA • VEGETARIAN DIET LOWERS RISKS OF BOWEL CANCER

    44. RECOMMENDED FIBER INTAKE • 20 - 25 g/day WITH AN UPPER LIMIT OF 35 g/day • FAMILY HISTORY OF DIET-IMPLICATED CANCER 35-40 g/day • DIABETICS UP TO 50 g/day

    45. SOURCES OF FIBER • LEGUMES (ALSO PROTEIN SOURCE) • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES • WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS AND FLOURS

    46. PROPOSED MECHANISMS FOR FIBER CANCER PREVENTION • INCREASED FECAL BULK DECREASES CARCINOGEN CONCENTRATION • CHANGE IN FLORA • SHORTENED TRANSIT TIME DECREASES CONTACT TIME AND TIME FOR SYNTHESIS OF TOXINS • CHANGE IN pH

    47. CHELATORS LOWER MINERAL ABSORPTION • PHYTATES • OXALATES