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Nutrition PowerPoint Presentation

Nutrition

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Nutrition

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  1. Nutrition • Nutrient—substance used by the body for growth, maintenance, and repair • Nutrition-the study of the effects of substances in food on the body and health • Malnutrition- not enough of the right nutrients • Starvation-not enough food • Calorie- the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water 1 degree Celsius • Use bomb calorimeter

  2. Nutrition • Hunger- unpleasant feeling from lack of food • Satiety- the stomach being full to the point of satisfaction • Takes 20 minutes to reach brain • Appetite- the desire of food and the pleasure eating provides

  3. Nutrition • Major nutrients • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Water • Minor nutrients • Vitamins • Minerals

  4. Five Basic Food Groups and Some of Their Major Nutrients Table 14.2 (1 of 2)

  5. Five Basic Food Groups and Some of Their Major Nutrients Table 14.2 (2 of 2)

  6. USDA Food Guide Pyramid Figure 14.17

  7. Energy sources • Carbohydrates (CHO’s) -4 calories • Proteins- 4 calories • Fats- 9 calories • Alcohol- 7 calories

  8. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Carbohydrates • What types of foods are carbohydrates?

  9. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Most are derived from plants • Exceptions: lactose from milk and small amounts of glycogens from meats

  10. Carbohydrates • 4 types • Monosaccharide • Glucose (sugar in blood) & fructose • Disaccharide • Two sugars hooked together • Table sugar and lactose • Complex CHO’s or polysaccharides • 3 or more • Glycogen and starch

  11. Carbohydrates • Cellulose- Dietary Fiber or Roughage • Body can’t break these down and digest them • Reduces the rate of colorectal cancer • Insoluble • Does not dissolve in water • Wheat, bran, whole grains, vegetables

  12. Carbohydrates • Soluble • Dissolves in water and forms gel that picks up substances and carries it out of the body • Oats, beans, barley

  13. Lactose Intolerant • Lack the enzyme lactase to digest lactose • Symptoms: bloating, gas, cramps, diarrhea • Lactaid is OTC product to help break it down

  14. Diabetes Mellitus • Little or no insulin produced by islet cells on pancreas • Insulin is what allows glucose into the cell so it can get energy • Two types of Diabetes • Insulin-dependent or Juvenile Onset • Non-Insulin Dependent or Adult Onset • Most common • Sometimes controlled by diet

  15. Diabetes Mellitus • Hyperglycemia • High glucose level • Hypoglycemia • Low blood sugar • Brain is starving and can lead to coma

  16. Dietary Treatment of Diabetes • Achieve and maintain desirable body weight • Eat a balanced diet • No sugars • Eat 3 meals and 3 snacks a day • Eat at regular times • Regular pattern of exercise to regulate glucose

  17. Complications of Diabetes • Slow healing of cuts and bruises • Kidney problems • Blindness • Neuropathy • More risk of heart disease

  18. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Lipids • Saturated fats from animal products • Unsaturated fats from nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils • Cholesterol from egg yolk, meats, and milk products

  19. Functions of Fat • Source of stored energy • Protects our organs • Body insulation • Part of all cell membranes (phospholipids) • Needed to make hormones

  20. How The Body Uses Fats • Needed to digest fat soluble vitamins- A,D,E,K • Provides essential nutrients • Provides flavor for food • Provides satiety • Spares protein from use for energy

  21. Structures of Fats • Triglyceride- glycerol with 3 fatty acids • Diglyceride- glycerol with 2 fatty acids • Monoglycerol- one fatty acid

  22. Saturated Vs. Unsaturated Fats Saturated Unsaturated Liquid at room temperature Becomes rancid easily Vegetable oil • Solid at room temperature • Stores well • Fat on meat • Butter • Palm and coconut oil

  23. Types of Fats • Saturated Fats have all of the hydrogen bonds full and are not good for you • Polyunsaturated fats won’t help or hurt you • Monounsaturated fats will help you • Artificial Fats- Olestra • Can cause some digestive tract discomfort and should be used sparingly

  24. Cholesterol • Should be under 200 mg • LDL’s – low density lipoproteins and put you at greater risk for arteriosclerosis, blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes • HDL’s- high density lipoproteins and are good for you • To lower LDL’s • Be female • Stop smoking and limit caffeine • Exercise • Increase Omega 3 intake and eat more oatmeal

  25. Ketosis • When the body starts using protein for energy due to lack of fat • Common in athletes that try and lose too much weight • Characterized by fruit oder to breath

  26. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Proteins • Complete proteins—contain all essential amino acids • Most are from animal products • Legumes and beans also have proteins, but are incomplete

  27. Proteins • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins • 9 essential amino acids that must come from diet because the body can’t make them • Nonessential amino acids- body can make • Complete proteins- have all essential amino acids • Meat, cheese, eggs • Incomplete proteins- do not have all essential amino acids • Beans, corn, peanut butter

  28. Proteins • Complimentary Proteins- • Combine 2 or more incomplete proteins to make a complete protein • Bread and peanut butter • Recommended protein intake is .8 grams per pound of body weight • Kwashiokor- enough calories, but not enough protein

  29. Problems Associated With Lack of Protein • Can’t make digestive enzymes • Can’t make anibodies • Some hormones not produced in large enough amounts, like insulin • Nerve impulses not sent, apathy • Hair color loss • Wounds won’t heal • Muscle tissue breaks down

  30. Vegetarianism • Why? • Ethics about killing animals • Religious beliefs • Concern about drugs in meat • Concern about cholesterol and saturated fat • Expense of meat • Some don’t like the taste

  31. Types of Vegetarians • Vegan- eat only plant foods • Have the most nutritional concerns • Lacto vegans- will eat dairy products • Lacto-ovo-vegans- include dairy and eggs • Lacto-ovo-pesco-vegans- include dairy, eggs, and fish

  32. Nutritional Concerns of Vegetarian Diets • B 12 • Only found in animal products • Must take supplements • Iron • Best source is red meat • Calcium • May need supplements or fortified foods like butter and orange juice

  33. Health Advantages of Vegetarian Diets • Lower body weight • Lower blood cholesterol • Lower rates of breast and colon cancer • Better digestive health due to higher fiber diet

  34. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Vitamins • Most vitamins are used as coenzymes • Found in all major food groups • Needed in small quantities

  35. Vitamins • Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) can be stored • Water soluble vitamins like vitamin C can’t be stored and must continually be supplied

  36. Vitamins • Folacin or Folic Acid • Found in dark green leafy vegetables • Deficiency causes aplastic anemia • Also important in pregnant women to prevent spina bifida

  37. Vitamins • Vitamin C • Deficiency is called scurvy • Stop making collagen • Weakened blood vessels • Loss of hair • Internal bleeding • In large doses it may prevent colds

  38. Vitamins • Vitamin D • Increases Calcium absorption • Deficiency is called rickets • Bones are soft and legs are bowed

  39. Vitamins • Have an RDA- recommended dietary allowance • To preserve vitamin and mineral content • Store in cool dark place • eat peelings whenever possible • Cook in small amounts of water and steam if possible • Heat destroys many vitamins and minerals

  40. Vitamins • Enrichment- replace vitamins that were originally in the food, but may have been loss during processing • Fortification- add vitamins and minerals that weren’t originally in the product

  41. Dietary Sources of Major Nutrients • Minerals • Play many roles in the body • Most mineral-rich foods are vegetables, legumes, milk, and some meats • Many are required for nerve conduction and contraction of muscle fibers • Major minerals- need in amounts greater than 100 mg a day • Minor minerals- needed only in small amounts

  42. Minerals • Calcium • Needed for bone strength, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and nerve impulse transmission • Deficiency causes osteoporosis • Found in dairy products and some vegetables

  43. Minerals • Iron • Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in hemoglobin • Deficiency is called anemia • Toxicity- can lead to death if overdose • Found mainly in red meat • If taken with vitamin C it will be absorbed better by the body

  44. Minerals • Iodine • Helps regulate metabolism and determine rate of thyroid • Deficiency can lead to a goiter • Cretinism- named for the island of Crete • Goiter Belt- geographic area where soil is low in iodine • We now iodize salt to prevent deficiency

  45. Minerals • Flouride • Reduces tooth decay • Toxicity- rust colored stains on teeth • Sources: fluoridated water, toothpaste, and mouthwash

  46. Water • Body is 70-75% water • Functions of Water • Place for chemical reactions • Maintain acid/base balance • Nutrient and waste transport • Regulation of temperature • Lubrication and shock absorbancy • Hard water contains high levels of calcium, magnesium, and iron • Soft water- minerals replaced with salt

  47. Nutrition and the Cancer Patient • Many cancer patients lose weight • Loss of appetite • High energy demands of tumor • Nutrition and maintaining weight is very important • Those who have not lost weight live twice as long • Chemotherapy is more effective if weight can be maintained

  48. Diet and Prevention of Cancer • Reduce fat to 30% or less to reduce risk of breast and colon cancer • Increase fiber • Increase vitamin A and C • Reduce processed meats • Salt-cured, pickled and smoked meats • Reduce alcohol

  49. Metabolism • Chemical reactions necessary to maintain life • Catabolism—substances are broken down to simpler substances; energy is released • Anabolism—larger molecules are built from smaller ones

  50. Carbohydrate Metabolism • Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source to produce cellular energy (ATP) • Glucose (blood sugar) is the major breakdown product and fuel to make ATP