nutrition l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
NUTRITION PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
NUTRITION

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 176

NUTRITION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 221 Views
  • Updated on

NUTRITION. By Dale M Forsyth Purdue University. Nutrition deals with providing the right nutrients in the right amounts in the diet. Definition Deals with the nutrients needed, their metabolism, feeds that supply them, and feeding systems to provide them. NUTRIENT. DEFINED

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

NUTRITION


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. NUTRITION By Dale M Forsyth Purdue University

    2. Nutrition deals with providing the right nutrients in the right amounts in the diet. • Definition • Deals with the nutrients needed, their metabolism, feeds that supply them, and feeding systems to provide them

    3. NUTRIENT • DEFINED • A chemical or chemical compound that aids in the support of life, and is essential for the normal function, growth and reproduction of the animal.

    4. CLASSES of NUTRIENTS • There are 6 Classes of Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals

    5. ANALYSIS Water Water Carbohydrates Crude Fiber NFE Fats Ether Extract Protein Crude Protein Minerals Ash Vitamins Too small to weigh

    6. WATER • The most crucial nutrient. • What % water loss is fatal to animals? • ~12%

    7. Unique properties of Water: • What happens to most substances as they are cooled? • What happens when water freezes? • What is the consequence of this?

    8. 3 important properties of water to animals are: • High Dielectric Constant • High polarity of the molecule • Water dissolves many things • High Specific Heat • Takes a lot of heat to change temperature much • Helps maintain proper body temp

    9. High Latent Heat of Vaporization • Takes a lot of energy to change water from liquid into vapor • Result is: • lots of heat is removed when sweat evaporates or • moisture-laden air is exhaled

    10. 3 sources of water to animals • Drinking Water • Water in Feed • Metabolic Water • C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O • Impt to: • Hibernating animals • Water conserving animals

    11. % Yield as Water • Glucose = 60 % • Protein = 42 % • Fat = 100 %

    12. Functions of Water in Animals • Many many functions, which include: • Movement of nutrients and metabolites • Constant body temperature • Media for chemical reactions • Takes part in chemical reactions • Special roles

    13. Special Roles • Synovial fluid – lubricant • Cerebrospinal fluid – cushion • Sound transmission in ear • Light transmission in eye

    14. Approximate WATER CONSUMPTION SpeciesLiters/Day • Beef 26-66 • Dairy 38-110 • Horses 30-45 • Swine 11-19 • Sheep & Goats 4-15 • Chickens .2-.4 • Turkeys .4-.6

    15. Factors Affecting H2O Reqmt • Species • Environmental temperature • Protein, salt and dry matter intake • Lactation • Age • Activity • Rate & composition of gain • Health

    16. Effects of Water Restriction •  Food Intake – and production • Hemoconcentration •  Heart Rate •  Temperature •  Respiration Rate • DEATH

    17. Practical Aspect • Make good, clean water liberally available at all times (EXCEPT certain conditions: Before or After HEAVY exercise)

    18. CARBOHYDRATES

    19. “The trouble with our food is that it’s filled with all kinds of chemicals, like for example polyhydroxyaldehydes and ketones and their anhydrides.”

    20. But THAT’S just a description of CARBOHYDRATE

    21. ALL foods are CHEMICALS

    22. CARBOHYDRATES •  Carbohydrates are made of the elements: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen • H to O ration as in water (2:1)

    23. Carbohydrates are made of molecules called: • SUGARS (saccharides)

    24. Function of carbohydrates: ENERGY

    25. Forms of Carbohydrates • soluble – • sugars • monosaccharides • disaccharides • insoluble • polysaccharides

    26. There are many monosaccharides. You are to know just a few

    27. PENTOSES • Arabinose • Xylose • Ribose

    28. HEXOSES • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • Mannose

    29. 2 simple sugars bond to form: • DISACCHARIDES • Sucrose • Maltose • Lactose • Cellobiose

    30. DISACCHARIDES • Sucrose •  table sugar • Lactose •  milk sugar •  Maltose – repeating unit of starch • Cellobiose – repeating unit of cellulose

    31. Disaccharides • Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose with  bond • Cellobiose = Glucose + Glucose  bond

    32. CHO STRUCTURES • Glucose

    33. CHO STRUCTURES

    34. Glucose

    35. Maltose = glucose + glucose • Connected by alpha bond

    36. Cellobiose = glucose + glucose • Connected by beta bond

    37. POLYSACCHARIDES • STARCH • Starch is made of repeating units of the disaccharide MALTOSE • so it is really all: • GLUCOSE

    38. KINDS OF STARCH • AMYLOSE • Straight chain polymer • AMYLOPECTIN • Branched chain polymer

    39. More Polysaccharides • Glycogen • Like amylopectin. Stored in animals (small amount) • Cellulose

    40. Glycogen • Storage CHO found in animals, but only in small amounts • Readily available supply of energy

    41. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STARCH AND CELLULOSE IS: • Starch is glucose connected with alpha bonds • Cellulose is glucose connected with beta bonds

    42. Animals do NOT make the enzyme that digests beta bonds. • Only bacteria make cellulase

    43. More about cellulose • Part of cell wall • Analyzed in Crude Fiber, or better, NDF and ADF • Only of value to ruminant animals because it takes bacteria to make cellulase to digest it. • (or bacteria in the cecum of nonruminant herbivores)

    44. LIGNIN • LIGNIN IS NOT REALLY CARBOHYDRATE, but it is discussed here because it is in the fibrous part of the feed associated with cellulose, which is carbohydrate, and is analyized along with carbohydrate.

    45. Bad things about lignin • Completely indigestible • Binds to cellulose and decreases the digestibility (dramatically) of other feed components

    46. Good things about lignin • Nutritionally – NONE • For the plant • Helps insect resistance • Provides structural rigidity

    47. Analysis of CHO • Crude Fiber • NFE Better • Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) • Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) • (more about those later in the course)

    48. LIPIDS • DEFINITION Lipids are substances that are soluble in ether (and other organic solvents).

    49. LIPID CLASSIFICATION • Simple lipids - esters of fatty acids with alcohols • Fats, Oils, Waxes •  Compound lipids - esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid. • Phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins •  Derived lipids •  Sterols •  Terpenes (includes Vitamin A)

    50. Largest, most impt category is Fats and Oils • Fats contain 2.25 X as much energy as CHO • Fats = 9 Kcal / g • Proteins = 4 Kcal / g • CHO = 4 Kcal / g • 9 / 4 = 2.25