Applying scientific enlightenment principles
1 / 16

Applying Scientific & Enlightenment Principles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Applying Scientific & Enlightenment Principles. Mary Wollstonecraft. Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Women

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Applying Scientific & Enlightenment Principles' - nyla

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Mary Wollstonecraft

Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Women

  • Mary Wollstonecraft was a well-known British social critic who believed that although a woman’s first duty was to be a good mother, a woman should also be able to decide what is best for her, and not be completely dependant upon her husband.

Mary Wollstonecraft

  • In her book, Wollstonecraft called for equal education for girls and boys. She believed that education could give women the tools to compete with men in public life.

Adam Smith

Wrote: The Wealth of Nations

  • Adam Smith was a British economist who believed that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity.

  • Laissez-faire – Policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

Adam Smith

  • Smith believed that all economic growth was linked to the forces of supply and demand.

  • Smith believed that whenever there was a demand for goods or services suppliers would seek to meet it in order to try to make a profit

  • Smith’s ideas would gain great popularity, and would help to shape immensely productive economies in the 1800s and 1900s.

Denis Diderot

Wrote: Encyclopedia

  • Another Enlightenment scholar, Diderot labored 25 years to produce his 28-volume Encyclopedia, which was a collection of articles by such Enlightenment thinkers as Montesquieu and Voltaire.

Denis Diderot

  • In the articles scholars denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and advocated education for all. They attacked divine right theory and traditional religions.

  • The Catholic Church threatened to excommunicate anyone who bought or read the Encyclopedia, and the French government said that reading the book was amoral.

  • Despite these efforts to ban the Encyclopedia, the book sold thousands of copies and helped Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe.

Impact of the Enlightenment

  • The Enlightenment had a major impact throughout Europe in the 1700s.

    • Greater numbers of people began to question established beliefs and customs.

    • Enlightenment beliefs affected leaders and the development of nations.

    • Many writers, such as Voltaire, were thrown into prison, and their books were banned and burned.

    • On the opposite side, many government and church leaders worked to defend the established systems.

Impact of the Enlightenment

  • One of the ways government and church leaders defended established ideas was by censoring the new ideas of the time.

    Censorship – A restriction on access to ideas and information.

Impact of the Enlightenment

Another impact of the Enlightenment is a growth in the belief that democracy was the best form of government.

  • That happened because the Enlightenment inspired new ideas such as:

    • a sense of individualism

    • a belief in personal freedom

    • a sense of the basic equality of human beings.

      These concepts, along with other challenges to traditional authority, became important in the growth of democracy.

Impact of the Enlightenment


  • As people in a country drew together to fight for a democratic government, strong feelings of nationalism arose.

  • In the late 1700s, Enlightenment ideas would contribute to an Age of Revolution.

Impact of the Enlightenment

Enlightened Despot – An absolute ruler who used his or her power to reform society and bring about political or social change.

Maria Theresa


  • She forced nobles and clergy to pay taxes, not just peasants. Maria Theresa also improved education for all people in her empire.

Joseph II


  • Joseph II created legal reforms to benefit all of the people, called for religious toleration, ended censorship, and abolished serfdom.

Catherine the Great


  • Asked for advice from nobles, freed many peasants and townspeople, built schools and hospitals, promoted women’s education, and religious tolerance throughout Russia.


  • The thinkers of the Enlightenment used human reason to suggest reforms in government and society.

  • Many Europeans, including several monarchs, were influenced by these ideas and tried to change things in their own nations.

  • These changes had an impact on all of Europe as democratic and nationalistic ideas grew and contributed to revolutions, such as the revolutions in America and France.