Chinese Philosophies. Philosophy - the study of man’s thinking about the meaning of life and truth and from that investigating how a person should act or behave. 3 Chinese Philosophies - Confucianism - Daoism - Legalism.
Philosophy-the study of man’s thinking about the meaning of life and truth and from that investigating how a person should act or behave.3 Chinese Philosophies-Confucianism-Daoism-Legalism
Philosophies-Over time, the feudal system established by the Zhou began to break down.-This period of chaos in which the different feudal states battled one another became known as the Warring States Period.
Warring States Period-The civil wars of the Warring States Period lasted over 200 years.-This period of instability ended in 221 BC when the Qin state defeated its rivals.
Philosophies-Upset with the disorder of the Warring States Period, many thinkers began to try and make sense of and improve the chaotic world in which they lived.-This led to the creation of 3 major Chinese philosophies.
Confucianism-One of these thinkers was a man named Confucius, who became the most influential teacherin Chinese history.-His teachings became known as Confucianism. Over time his teachings were put into a booktitled, The Analects.-Confucianism emphasizes such values as family, tradition, mutual respect, ethicsand moral values. Focus is on the human world.
Basic beliefs of Confucianism-Respect-Respecteveryone, especially your elders. Be kind to all.-Family values-Children should respect and obey their parents. All family members should beloyalto each other. Fathers should display high moral values.-Government-Ruler should act like a father to his people. Rule byexample, not through laws and punishment. Government officials should earn their jobs through education and talent.
Daoism-Beliefs-Philosophy that stresses living in harmony with theDao, which is the guiding force of all reality.-Daoists believe that people should avoid interfering with nature and each other. They should be like water and go with the flow.-Daoists believe that the universe is a balanceof opposites (Yin Yang). -Daoists believe they should be in harmony with nature and focus on the natural world.
Daoism-BeliefsGovernment-Daoistsbelieve that the government should stay out of people’s lives. Their ideal ruler was a wise man who was in harmony with the Dao. He would govern so effortlessly that his people would not even know they were being governed-Laoziwas the most famous Daoist teacher. He taught that people should not try to gain wealth and power. His basic text on Daoism is titled, The Way and Its Power.
Legalism-The belief that people were bad by nature and needed to be controlledthrough strict laws and harsh punishments.-Believed in mutual responsibility, which means they were held accountable for others actions. For example, a guilty person’s relatives and neighbors will also be punished accordingly.
Legalism- BeliefsGovernment- All about social orderand control . People needed to be controlled through strict rules and harsh punishments.-Stressed unity and efficiency. People were told to respect authority.-Legalists wanted their empire to expand so they urged the people to always be prepared for war.-EmperorQinwas a Legalist.
Review-When the Zhou feudal system collapsed, China entered into the Warring States Period.-During this time we saw the creation of the three main Chinese philosophies.-All 3 of these became popular and competed for followers.-Legalism had an immediate impact on the government of the Dynasty to emerge from the Warring States Period, the Qin Dynasty.