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Classical Chinese Philosophies. 3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements. Confucianism Daoism/Taoism Legalism. Confucianism. Confucius (551-479 BCE) K’ung Fu-Tzu Lived during Period of Warring States Scholar – taught history, music, ethics Main Writings: The Analects

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3 major classical chinese philosophical movements
3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements
  • Confucianism
  • Daoism/Taoism
  • Legalism
confucianism
Confucianism
  • Confucius (551-479 BCE)
    • K’ung Fu-Tzu
    • Lived during Period of Warring States
    • Scholar – taught history, music, ethics
    • Main Writings: The Analects
      • Promoted by his followers, such as Mencius
confucianism1
Confucianism
  • Wanted to restore social order, harmony and good government to China
  • Ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue
  • Spoke of the ideal age of the early Zhou Dynasty
      • Perfect society
      • Superiors looked after dependents
      • Inferiors devoted to service
confucianism2
Confucianism
  • Five Basic Relationships in Society
      • Ruler and Subject
      • Father and Son
      • Husband and Wife
      • Older Brother and Younger Brother
      • Friend and Friend
confucianism3
Confucianism
  • Most of Confucius’ theories on relationships were based on the FAMILY
  • Filial Piety – Respect for parents and elders
    • Necessary for order in the world
confucianism4
Confucianism
  • Argued that a Chinese gentleman was based on education and moral standards and NOT based on birth
  • Bureaucracy – Those who run the government
    • Courteous
    • Precise
    • Generous
    • Just (Fair)
daoism taoism
Daoism/Taoism
  • Founded by Lao Tze (604-531 BCE)
    • Book: Tao-te-Ching (The Way of Virtue)
  • Human actions are not important
  • The most important part of society is the natural order of things
    • The Tao (The Way) – guides all things
daoism taoism1
Daoism/Taoism
  • Search for knowledge and understanding of nature
  • To understand nothing, it is best to do nothing, to observe nature
    • Nature is not jealous, power-hungry
    • Does not argue about right and wrong, good or bad
legalism
Legalism
  • Practical, political reaction to Confucianism
    • Founded by Han Feizi in 3rd century BCE
  • Powerful and efficient government was the key to restoring order
    • Use law to end civil war and restore harmony
    • Ruler should provide rewards for good subjects and punish those who are disobedient
    • Must control ideas and actions of people
    • Becomes basis for future dynasties
    • Favored by Shi Huangdi in the Qin Dynasty
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