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Classical Chinese Philosophies. 3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements. Confucianism Daoism/Taoism Legalism. Confucianism. Confucius (551-479 BCE) K’ung Fu-Tzu Lived during Period of Warring States Scholar – taught history, music, ethics Main Writings: The Analects

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Classical Chinese Philosophies


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    1. Classical Chinese Philosophies

    2. 3 Major Classical Chinese Philosophical Movements • Confucianism • Daoism/Taoism • Legalism

    3. Confucianism • Confucius (551-479 BCE) • K’ung Fu-Tzu • Lived during Period of Warring States • Scholar – taught history, music, ethics • Main Writings: The Analects • Promoted by his followers, such as Mencius

    4. Confucianism • Wanted to restore social order, harmony and good government to China • Ethical system based on relationships and personal virtue • Spoke of the ideal age of the early Zhou Dynasty • Perfect society • Superiors looked after dependents • Inferiors devoted to service

    5. Confucianism • Five Basic Relationships in Society • Ruler and Subject • Father and Son • Husband and Wife • Older Brother and Younger Brother • Friend and Friend

    6. Confucianism • Most of Confucius’ theories on relationships were based on the FAMILY • Filial Piety – Respect for parents and elders • Necessary for order in the world

    7. Confucianism • Argued that a Chinese gentleman was based on education and moral standards and NOT based on birth • Bureaucracy – Those who run the government • Courteous • Precise • Generous • Just (Fair)

    8. Daoism/Taoism • Founded by Lao Tze (604-531 BCE) • Book: Tao-te-Ching (The Way of Virtue) • Human actions are not important • The most important part of society is the natural order of things • The Tao (The Way) – guides all things

    9. Daoism/Taoism • Search for knowledge and understanding of nature • To understand nothing, it is best to do nothing, to observe nature • Nature is not jealous, power-hungry • Does not argue about right and wrong, good or bad

    10. Legalism • Practical, political reaction to Confucianism • Founded by Han Feizi in 3rd century BCE • Powerful and efficient government was the key to restoring order • Use law to end civil war and restore harmony • Ruler should provide rewards for good subjects and punish those who are disobedient • Must control ideas and actions of people • Becomes basis for future dynasties • Favored by Shi Huangdi in the Qin Dynasty