Regents Review Live! Living Environment Regents Review Ms. Foley Henninger High School Syracuse, New York
Be Prepared on Exam Day! • Bring to Test Site: • Identification (student id, drivers license, etc.) • 2 Pens • 2 Pencils • Get a Good Nights Sleep • Eat Breakfast! • Start Studying Now! • Be Confident in Yourself!
Review Ideas • Review Books: available at bookstores, libraries or ask your teacher. • Review Classes: Listen to your teacher for review sessions. • Online Resources: http://www.nysedregents.org/LivingEnvironment • Take 3 Complete exams BEFORE Your Test!
Living Environment Regents Format • Part A : Multiple Choice Consists of approximately 30 multiple choice questions, that test you on specific factual information. • Part B 1 : Multiple Choice Various questions that test your knowledge of experimental data, analysis of scientific information and representations of biological phenomena. • Part B 2 : Free Response and Multiple Choice Questions on interpretation of data and a graph is included here! • Part C : Free Response May be a one word response, one sentence or multiple sentences. • Part D : Free Response and Multiple Choice Various questions based on the 4 mandated state labs.
Read the Question Carefully! Read the whole question, think of your answer BEFORE you read the choices. Multiple Choice Which structures are listed in order from the least complex to the most complex? (1) plant cell, leaf, chloroplast, rose bush (2) chloroplast, plant cell, leaf, rose bush (3) chloroplast, leaf, plant cell, rose bush (4) rose bush, leaf, plant cell, chloroplast
Key Terms & Phrases Underline the key terms and phrases of the question. Remember take your Time! Multiple Choice Which reproductive pattern would be associated with a species that is most likely to undergo rapid evolutionary change? (1) asexual reproduction with a short reproductive cycle (2) sexual reproduction with a short reproductive cycle (3) asexual reproduction with a long reproductive cycle (4) sexual reproduction with a long reproductive cycle
Read ALL the Choices Read the answer choices slowly and carefully. Cross out the answers you know are wrong. Multiple Choice Abiotic factors that affect the growth of grass in a lawn include (1) bacteria and soil (2) earthworms and nutrients (3) moisture and minerals (4) fertilizer and decomposers
Brief Review: Ecology! Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors Autotroph vs. Heterotroph Food Chains and Food Webs Energy Pyramids
Practice Questions Organisms that are able to manufacture organic nutrients from substances in the abiotic environment are classified as (1) heterotrophs (3) predators (2) fungi (4) autotrophs
More Practice If the population of mice is reduced by disease, which change will most likely occur in the food web? 1)The cricket population will increase. 2)The snake population will increase. 3)The grasses will decrease. 4)The deer population will decrease.
One More Question… Which graph best represents the relative energy content of the levels of this pyramid? 1) 2) 3) 4)
Brief Review: Human Impact Humans have a had a NEGATIVE impact on the environment. Issues: Deforestation, Acid Rain, Loss of Biodiversity, Pollution, Global Warming, etc. How to Correct? Make Laws or Educate
Question Time Which human activity would most likely deplete finite resources? (1) use of natural enemies to eliminate insect pests (2) development of wildlife refuges (3) governmental restriction of industrial pollution (4) uncontrolled population growth One possible reason for the rise in the average air temperature at Earth’s surface is that (1) decomposers are being destroyed (2) deforestation has increased the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere (3) industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air (4) growing crops is depleting the ozone shield
Brief Review: Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis Occurs in body cells or somatic cells. Results in 2 genetically identically daughter cells. Occurs in sex cells or gametes. Results in 4 genetically different daughter cells. The daughter cells have ½ the amount of genetic information
Practice Questions The arrows in the diagram below illustrate processes in the life of a species that reproduces sexually. Which processes result directly in the formation of cells with half the amount of genetic material that is characteristic of the species • processes 1 and 2 3. processes 3 and 4 2. processes 2 and 3 4. processes 4 and 5
More Questions The chromosome content of a skin cell that is about to form two new skin cells is represented in the diagram to the below. Which diagram below best represents the chromosomes that would be found in the two new skin cells produced as a result of this process? 1) 2) 3) 4)
One More Question Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed below. Processes A. Differentiation B. Fertilization C. Gamete production D. Mitosis Which sequence represents the order in which these processes occur? (1) A → B → C → D (2) B → A → C → D (3) C → B → D → A (4) D → B → C → A
Brief Review: DNA Contains genetic information (heredity) Regulates the cell’s activities Located in the Nucleus Double Helix Model: A, T, C and G (4 bases) Environment can Influence the EXPRESSION of the Genes
Practice Questions The instructions for the traits of an organism are coded in the arrangement of: 1) glucose units in carbohydrate molecules 2) bases in DNA in the nucleus 3)fat molecules in the cell membrane 4)energy-rich bonds in starch molecules
More Questions A boy inherits genes for tallness, but his growth is limited as a result of poor nutrition. This is an example of (1) an inherited disorder (2) environmental influence on gene expression (3) expression of a hidden trait (4) a characteristic controlled by more than one pair of genes
One More Question The diagram shows a molecule of DNA. What occurs in the process of replication? 1) Structure 1 is hydrolyzed. 2) Chemical bonds are broken in region 2. 3) Structure 3 is synthesized. 4) Proteins are formed in region 2.
Picture Time Protein Synthesis
Brief Review: Protein Synthesis • mRNA travels to the nucleus to transcribe the information in the DNA • mRNA travels through the cytoplasm to the RIBOSOME • Translation begins at the start codon • tRNA brings the anticodon whose bases are COMPLEMENTARY to the mRNA • Protein chain grows until the stop codon is reached
Question Time 1) The diagram shows protein synthesis that occurs within cells. The process represented in the diagram occurs on the cell organelle known as a 1. vacuole 3. chloroplast 2. ribosome 4. mitochondrion 2) The diagram shows a joining of two amino acids that occurs within cells. The process represented in the diagram is • lipid digestion 3. protein synthesis 2. cell respiration 4. protein hydrolysis
More Questions! Base your answer on the diagram which represents a biochemical process that occurs in a cell and your knowledge of biology. A change in the region labeled Y from U-C-G to U-G-C would most likely cause 1) the synthesis of a different protein 2) polyploidy 3) the formation of recombinant DNA 4) crossing-over
Brief Review: Biotechnology • Recombinant DNA • Cloning • DNA Electrophoresis
Question Time Which statement concerning Dolly is correct? 1) Gametes from sheep A and sheep B were united to produce Dolly. 2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly is identical to that of sheep A. 3) Both Dolly and sheep C have identical DNA. 4) Dolly contains genes from sheep B and sheep C.
More Questions A product of genetic engineering Technology is represented below. Which substance was needed to join the insulin gene to the bacterial DNA as shown? • a specific carbohydrate • a specific enzyme • hormones • antibodies The flounder is a species of fish that can live in very cold water. The fish produces an “antifreeze” protein that prevents ice crystals from forming in its blood. The DNA for this protein has been identified. An enzyme is used to cut and remove this section of flounder DNA that is then spliced into the DNA of a strawberry plant. As a result, the plant can now produce a protein that makes it more resistant to the damaging effects of frost. This process is known as 1) sorting of genes 2) genetic engineering 3) recombination of chromosomes 4) mutation by deletion of genetic material
Tips & Tricks for Graphing! • Identify the variables to be graphed - Independent Variable & Dependent Variable • Determine the scale of the axes - Determine each axis individually • Plot Data • Connect the Data Points • Provide a Title
Part C: Short Answer Response • Read the question CAREFULLY & SLOWLY • Identify what the question is asking! • Pay attention to the bullets! • Answer the bulleted statements in your response. • When finished with your answer proof it before you move on! • Questions can be on various subjects: scientific method, body systems, human impact, etc.
Question Time Plants respond to their environment in many different ways. Design an experiment to test the effects of one environmental factor, chosen from the list below, on plant growth. Acidity of precipitation Temperature Amount of water In your answer, be sure to: • identify the environmental factor you chose • state one hypothesis the experiment would test  • state how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental group  • state two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control groups  • identify the independent variable in the experiment  • label the columns on the data table below for the collection of data in your experiment  Environmental factor: ____________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Data Table
Another Question! Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Vaccines play an important role in the ability of the body to resist certain diseases. 65) Describe the contents of a vaccine.  ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 66) Identify the system in the body that is most directly affected by a vaccination. ________________________________________ 67) Explain how a vaccination results in the long-term ability of the body to resist disease.  ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________
One More for Practice! Humans have many interactions with the environment. Briefly describe how human activities can affect the environment of organisms living 50 years from now. In your answer, be sure to: •identify one human activity that could release chemicals harmful to the environment  • identify the chemical released by the activity  • state one effect the release of this chemical would most likely have on future ecosystems  • state one way in which humans can reduce the production of this chemical to lessen its effect on future ecosystems  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Part D: State Lab Questions Beak of Finches State Lab • Key Terms: Variation, Natural Selection, Adaptations, Competition, Struggle for Survival and Selecting Agent • Key Points: - Species Evolve over Time. - Some Characteristics/ Variations give individuals an advantage over others. Better adapted individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce. - Variation can be caused by mutations, genetic recombination - Variation within a population increases the survival rate of the species when environmental changes occur.
Beaks of Finches Identify one bird that would most likely compete for food with the large tree finch. Support your answer.________________________ __________________________________ Identify one trait, other than beak characteristics, that would contribute to the survival of a finch species and state one way this trait contributes to the success of this species. _________________________________ _________________________________
Biodiversity Lab • Key Terms: Biodiversity, Gel Electrophoresis, DNA, RNA, Amino Acids, Chromatography • Key Points: - Biodiversity Increases the Stability of Ecosystems - Biodiversity has benefits to mankind: new medicine, food sources • Key Techniques: - Chromatography - Gel Electrophoresis - Translating Amino Acids
Question Time Use the Genetic Code Chart to Fill in the Missing Parts According to these amino acid sequences, why are species C and D the most closely related? ____________________________________
DNA Electrophoresis 2) This laboratory technique is known as (1) gel electrophoresis (2) DNA replication (3) protein synthesis (4) genetic recombination 3) State one specific way the results of this laboratory technique could be used.  ______________________________ • 1) This technique used to analyze DNA directly results in • synthesizing large fragments of DNA • (2) separating DNA fragments on the basis of • size • (3) producing genetically engineered DNA • Molecules • (4) removing the larger DNA fragments from the • samples
Diffusion Through a Membrane • Key Terms: Diffusion, Osmosis, Selectively Permeable, Cell Membrane • Key Points Part 1: - Molecules tend to move from areas of high concentration to low. (Diffusion) - Membranes allow certain materials to pass through (Selectively Permeable) - Indicators are used to show the presence of certain materials
Diffusion Through a Membrane • Key Points Part 2: - You observed basic parts of an onion cell - Osmosis is the term used to describe the diffusion of water molecules
Diffusion Through a Membrane • When salt water is added, the cytoplasm and cell membrane shrivels and becomes darker in color inside the cell wall. This is due to the water leaving the cell. • When distilled water is added, the cytoplasm and cell membrane swell back up to fill the entire space. Also, the cytoplasm lightens in color. This is due to water entering the cell.
Question Time The table below summarizes the content and appearance of the cell model and beaker after 20 minutes. . Supply the information needed to complete the table below which summarizes a change in location of substance C in the experimental setup A model of a cell is prepared and placed in A beaker of fluid as shown in the diagram below. The letters A, B, and C represent substances in the initial experimental setup
More Questions Base your answer to this question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram illustrates what happens when a particular solution is added to a wet-mount slide containing red onion cells being observed using a compound light microscope. Identify a process that caused the change in the cells. ______________________________________________________________________
Making Connections • Key Vocabulary: Observation, Pulse Rate, Muscle Fatigue, Controlled Experiment • Key Points: - Part A: Finding the Pulse Rate & Creating a Histogram of Class Results. - Part A2: How does Fatigue Affect Muscle Performance? - Part B: Investigating Claims & Designing an Experiment
Practice Questions The data table below compares blood flow in various human body structures, both at rest and during strenuous exercise. Select one structure from the data table and write its name in the space below. Explain one way that the change in the rate of blood flow in this structure helps maintain homeostasis during exercise. Structure ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
More Questions Students were asked to determine if they could squeeze a clothespin more times in a minute after resting than after exercising. An experiment that accurately tests this question should include all of the following except (1) a hypothesis on which to base the design of the experiment (2) a large number of students (3) two sets of clothespins, one that is easy to open and one that is more difficult to open (4) a control group and an experimental group with equal numbers of students of approximately the same age
More Practice! Which statement best describes a change that usually takes place in the human body when the heart rate increases as a result of exercise? (1) More oxygen is delivered to muscle cells. (2) Blood cells are excreted at a faster rate. (3) The rate of digestion increases. (4) No hormones are produced.
Remember…… • Be Prepared! • Take Your Time! • Read the Questions Carefully! • Be Confident!