Engineering, Construction, and DevelopmentApril 13, 2004 Dr. David W. Dinehart and Dr. Shawn P. Gross
Chemical Mechanical Electrical Computer Civil Live in the glass building Live in the basement of CEER Live on the 3rd floor CEER Live in the Computer Lab Live to serve you What disciplines of engineering does Villanova offer?
The water you drink, The roads you drive, The bridges you cross The environment you value. What do Civil Engineers do? Our mission is to enhance the quality of life.
What is Infrastructure? Webster’s Definitions: 1. the underlying foundation or basic framework (as of a system or organization) 2. the system of public works of a country, state, or region; also : the resources (as personnel, buildings, or equipment) required for an activity
NATURAL RESOURES $$$$ LABOR KNOWLEDGE What do you need to develop an infrastructure?
The Process of Project Development • Need • Financing (Economics) • Planning • Permitting • Design • Construction • Maintenance
Example - VU Student Health Center • What is the need? • How is the project financed? • What steps were involved in planning? • What permits were required? • What design considerations were involved? • Who will construct the facility? • What will be required to maintain it?
How is the process different in Latin America? Let’s look at the individual steps ...
Need • How are the needs different? • Urban vs. Rural • Examples • Cable TV vs. Electricity • Water: Taste vs. Quality concerns • Roads: How many lanes vs. no pavement Fundamental needs still exist!
Latin America’s Mega-Cities • Cities with est. population > 10 Million • Mexico City – 19.3 Million • Sao Paulo – 18.5 Million • Buenos Aires – 13.4 Million • Rio de Janeiro – 11.2 Million • 3 out of every 4 people in Latin America live in urban areas • approximately 1 in 8 live in these four Mega-cities
Latin America: Urban vs. Rural • Nearly 70% of people in Latin America who live in poverty live in urban areas • Challenges in Latin American cities: • Shanty towns, air pollution, water pollution, traffic congestion • Problems with transport, housing, and crime • Advantages in employment, infrastructure, and services
Financing/Economics • Whose needs come first? • Where does the money come from?
Example - Major Concrete Projects in Honduras • 5 US corporations • 3 Japanese corporations • 2 US government • 2 Local government • 5 other foreign corporations (Finland, Italy, Spain, Mexico, Argentina)
Financing/Economics • Other important factors • Inflation • Taxes What did you find in your assigned reading?
Planning and Permitting • Vary by project • type • scope • owner/financier • Less red tape … less structured • Environmental considerations?
Design • Building Codes • Natural Hazards • Material Availability/Costs • Knowledge - training and experience • Cost factors
Building Codes • What is a building code? • US codes are based on life safety • Building codes reference material codes • Consider natural hazards
Building Codes continued • Continuous improvement • Based on recent events • Based on the latest research • Are there building codes in Latin America?
Materials • Steel • Concrete • Wood • Masonry (Concrete block and brick) • Innovative materials
Availability of Materials • A major concrete company in Honduras • 3 plants in the country • 2 San Pedro Sula • 1 Tegucigalpa • 16 different companies listed in the greater Philadelphia area • with as many as 15 plants each!
Knowledge • Education - formal vs. hands-on • Training - on the job • Experience - different jobs • Licensure • in the US this means responsibility and liability
Design to Construction • In the US these are different tasks • In Latin America these are often combined • The same people may do both
Engineering Education • Historical Development in Latin America • 1st University in Santo Domingo in 1538 • State sponsored institutions • Financially dependent on civil authority • Autonomous in academic matters • Followed the Spanish model
Engineering Education • Historical Development in North America • Followed the English model (Oxford and Cambridge) • Emphasized religion, humanities, and arts • Harvard established in 1636 (100 years later) • Introduced developing concepts in natural science and mathematics (Newton)
Engineering Education • Historical Development • Latin America … Spain … Practice Oriented • North America … England … Theory (Religion, Arts, Math, Science) • Are teachers transmitters or creators of knowledge?
Latin America Part-time 1 – 40% are full-time Practitioners Limited facilities and resources Slowly changing North America Advanced degrees required Full-time Teachers and Researchers Experimentalists Engineering Education - Faculty
Latin America Highly variable Emphasis on practice 5 to 6 years to complete degree Some do not include pure science and math North America ABET, ASCE 4 years, 5 yr BS/MS Rigid minimum requirements, including math, science, design, and humanities Social, ethical, global issues Engineering Education - Curriculum
Current Trends and Future Considerations • Non-ABET accredited programs (technology schools) • 5 year degrees • Should we teach principles or application? • Should we move towards the middle? • Should the first professional degree be a Masters degree?
Construction • Equipment • Material • Labor • Training • Experience • Subcontractors • Quality Control/Inspection • Safety
Maintenance • Recurring costs • Design life • Recall - Building Codes are based on life safety, noton zero damage … How do the US and Latin America deal with disaster damage, respectively?
Disaster Recovery • United States • Hazard Reduction Societies • Government Declaration of Disaster Areas • FEMA, Red Cross, etc. • Latin America • Hurricane Mitch • Venezuela Mudslides • El Salvador Earthquake
The Internet Around the WorldInternet Users as of October 2000
Communications Infrastructure in L.A. Internet Users Per 100 People Telephone Lines Per 100 People
Will L.A. Ever Catch Up? • “Leapfrog” effect needed to catch up • Promise of cellular & wireless technologies that require different infrastructure needs • Wireless infrastructure: • Capital costs, trained users, technicians, illiteracy and language
A Positive Statistic • Catholic University of Chile project aimed to enhance efficiency, quality, and equity in education and integrate children into the Internet culture • As of 2000, about 50% of grammar schools and nearly 100% of high schools in Chile have Internet-connected computer labs
Amigos-Villanova Relationship • Amigos and Villanova agree on the scope of the project • Villanova Seniors design the project (with our “guidance”) • Faculty and students aid in the construction process over spring break
Projects • 2000 – 25’ tall reinforced concrete cross on top of a hill overlooking the orphanage • 2001 – Foundations for a two story reinforced concrete building to serve as a chapel and volunteer center • 2002 – Concrete columns for the chapel and volunteer center • 2003 – Elevated concrete slabs supporting for the same building • 2004 – Preliminary design of an elementary school and surveying the site
A Unique Course • Transfer of knowledge • US to Honduras • Honduras to US • Service related to engineering profession • Design (all students) • Construction (some students) • Insight into a very different culture • Theory meets Practice
View of the hill in 2000 Cross site at top of hill