Integration of Offshore Wind Farms into the Local Distribution Network - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Integration of Offshore Wind Farms into the Local Distribution Network

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  1. Integration of Offshore Wind Farms into the Local Distribution Network Charles A. Lynch ca.lynch@ipsa-power.com BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  2. DTI Project K/EL/0272 • Final Report http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/renewables/publications/pdfs/kel00272.pdf BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  3. Partners • IPSA Power Ltd. • EEPS Group, UMIST • Innogy/National Wind Power • Powergen BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  4. Objectives • Establish viability of 100MW+ of wind generation connected to 132kV • Establish validity of analysis tools for systems with doubly fed generators • Compare the behaviour of the different types of wind generator • Investigate using converter controls to assist is local area voltage control BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  5. Project Phases • DFIG Model Development • Steady State and Dynamic • Connections Studies • Optimal Power Flow Development • DFIG model • Voltage Control Studies BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004


  6. Generation Alternatives • ‘Fixed Speed’ Induction Generator • Variable Speed Synchronous or Induction Generation via Static Converters • Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  7. BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  8. Double Fed Induction Generator • What is a DFIG? • Wound rotor Induction Machine • Variable frequency voltage applied to the rotor windings • Why is it needed? • Variable speed, from about 0.7 to 1.3 per unit • Optimise performance over a range of wind speeds BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  9. Typical configuration of DFIG wind turbine • As BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  10. Modelling Requirements • Load Flow Studies • Voltage Stability and Control • Variation of real and reactive power over operating regimes • Fault Analysis Studies • Dynamic Analysis Studies • Transient and Dynamic stability BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  11. Modelling Detail • Control Modes • Speed Control • plus Power Factor control • Associated AC/DC Converters • Two Points of Power Injection • May not be explicitly modelled • Rotor reactive power is not provided by the network BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  12. BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  13. DFIG Performance Characteristic BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  14. Connection Studies • Collaborators • Scottish Power, Manweb • United Utilities BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  15. BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  16. Variable speed synchronous generation BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  17. Steady State Studies • Fixed Speed Induction Machines • Higher reactive power flows • Increased voltage regulation • Higher make duty fault levels • DFIG • Lower increase in make duty fault levels • Variable Speed Synchronous Machines • Least impact BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  18. Dynamic Analysis • All three generation types modelled • Fault clearance studies for faults at the wind farm and on the 132kV network • Further development of controller modelling by User Defined Modelling • DTI Project: K/EL/0321 • Facilitating the modelling of embedded generation BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  19. Fault at 132kV, example 1 BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  20. Fault at 132kV, example 2 BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  21. User Defined Modelling BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  22. Voltage Control Studies • Load Flow and Optimal Power Flow (OPF) studies • Compare fixed speed and variable speed machines • Determine optimal control strategy over a range of network conditions • Coordinated area based voltage control • Maximise generation penetration BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  23. Voltage Control Results • Significant improvement operating wind farm under voltage control compared with constant power factor control (DFIG) • Increased generation penetration possible • Fixed speed machine power factor correction is an additional constraint • OPF very helpful in addressing a wide range of issues BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004

  24. Conclusions • Alternative generation types successfully modelled in system wide studies • Connection of 100+ MW of offshore generation is possible at 132kV • More generation can be connected if it participates in voltage control • Full report: http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/renewables/publications/pdfs/kel00272.pdf BWEA Conference: UK Offshore Wind 2004