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Integration of Wind Farms into the Grid New Mexico Wind Working Group. Ben Karlson Wind Energy Technology Department Sandia National Laboratories www.sandia.gov/wind bkarlso@sandia.gov. Topics. Sandia Wind Energy Program Wind Energy Challenges Connecting Wind to the Grid

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Integration of Wind Farms into the Grid New Mexico Wind Working Group


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integration of wind farms into the grid new mexico wind working group

Integration of Wind Farms into the GridNew Mexico Wind Working Group

Ben Karlson

Wind Energy Technology Department

Sandia National Laboratories

www.sandia.gov/wind

bkarlso@sandia.gov

topics
Topics
  • Sandia Wind Energy Program
  • Wind Energy Challenges
  • Connecting Wind to the Grid
  • Transmission Issues
  • Associated Studies
  • Summary
slide3
Blade Technology

Materials and Manufacturing

Structural, Aerodynamic, and Full System Modeling

Sensors and Structural Health Monitoring

Advanced Blade Concepts

Lab and Field Testing

System Reliability

Industry Data Collection

Improve reliability of the existing technology and future designs

System Integration and Outreach

Wind/RADAR Interaction

Integration and Outreach

Sandia Wind Program

slide4
KAFB/SNL Wind Integration Study

Collaboration with DOE Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative – SNL Wind Farm Feasibility Project

Identify costs, benefits, and value of an on-site wind farm

Identify and develop mitigation schemes for system impacts

Infrastructure and power quality

Forecasting and contracts

Sandia/KAFB

Ridgeline

Sandia Integration

“Maximize installation of secure, on-site renewable energy projects at all DOE sites”

- Secretary Samuel W. Bodman

slide5

Wind Energy Challenges

  • Inability to dispatch
    • Weather determines the output
  • Variability
    • Makes it more difficult to balance load
  • Uncertainty
    • Can be forecasted to a large extent

Controllable

Non (Pseudo)-Controllable

slide6

Connecting Wind to the Grid

  • Wind Resource
    • Wind maps
    • Local meteorological stations
    • On-site monitoring
    • Min annual average wind speed 11-13 mph
  • Transmission access
    • Distance from wind site to transmission
  • Capital
    • Development can cost around $2 million per MW
slide7

FERC Open Access

  • Access to the transmission system
    • FERC has jurisdiction
      • Interstate commerce
      • Wholesale transactions
    • Access must be provided
    • Access must be fair, non-discriminatory
    • Open-Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) defines terms and conditions, procedures
slide8

Transmission

High Lonesome Mesa (100MW)

(Dynamically Scheduled to Arizona)

Aragonne Mesa 90 MW

110 MW additional planned

(Dynamically Scheduled to Arizona)

New Mexico Wind Energy Center (204 MW)

50 MW additional planned

YOU ARE HERE

Map By created by TrueWind Solutions from MesoMap system using historical weather data

slide9

Transmission Study Procedures

  • Transmission Queue
    • First-come, first-served
  • System Impact Study
    • 60-day study timeline, possible penalties for delays
    • Requests can be studied in “Clusters”
  • Facilities Study
    • 60-day study timeline, possible penalties for delays
  • Studies should take into account
    • Existing transmission obligations and commitments
    • Higher-queued transmission requests
    • Interconnection requests in the Transmission Provider’s Interconnection Queue (?)
slide10

Interconnection Service

  • Large Generators Procedures (LGIP)
    • For proposed generators 20 MW or larger
  • Small Generators Procedures (SGIP)
    • For generators <20 MW
  • Study Sequence
    • Feasibility Study, System Impact, Facilities Study
    • Fast-track possible for Small Generators
      • 2 MW or smaller
      • Meet standards (e.g., IEEE 1547, UL 1741, etc)
    • Study timelines defined in the OATT, but the benchmark is “reasonable effort”
slide11

Interconnection Queue

  • Determines general order of studies
  • Determines cost responsibility for additional facilities and/or upgrades
  • Backlogged
    • Too many speculative project
    • Modifications allowed require new study
  • Studying several projects together (Clustering) possible
    • If implemented, a cluster also takes a position in the queue
slide12

Interconnection Studies

  • Goal
    • Determine system upgrades required to interconnect the generator at full output
      • Also find maximum amount that Generator can inject without Network Upgrades (ERI)
    • Provide cost and construction schedule estimates
    • Applicable performance criteria
      • WECC/NERC standards
      • Other applicable non-discriminatory policy, criteria
      • FERC policy (e.g., for wind generators)
slide13

Scope of Studies

  • Feasibility Study -- Optional
    • Short Circuit
    • Power Flow
      • Conventional contingency analysis
      • Evaluation of reactive power requirements
  • System Impact Study
    • Transient Stability
      • Conventional contingency analysis
      • Further evaluation of reactive power requirement
      • Assessment of tolerance to disturbances (LVRT)
  • Facilities Study
    • Engineering Design
    • Interaction analyses?

$10,000

$50,000

$100,000

slide14

Summary & Discussion

  • Understand the wind resource
    • Observed data is necessary
  • Understand the transmission & interconnection process
    • Transmission may exist, but not have available capacity
    • Interconnection process is slow and complicated
  • Better understanding of the rules minimizes the risk