Chapter 4 FORMal Words
Chapter 4: Grammar Safari • Find a word you don’t know and can’t find in the dictionary. • Identify its part of speech (form class) • Tell us how you knew (form or function)
Safari Example • Example: • “In The Peace War Vernor Vinge introduced the technology of bobbles, originally used to counter nuclear threat… • POS: • Noun • How I knew • Follows preposition = object of the preposition
A Rose is a Rose…? • What’s the Part of Speech (formal class) of: • Bat • Slide • Plate • Home • Throw • Inning Prototypically… Stretching it a bit…
What POS are “slides” & “swings” I. Anthony turns slides and swings II. Anthony turns, slides, and swings No Commas Commas • Nouns Nouns • Nouns Verbs • Verbs Nouns • Verbs Verbs Eats, Shoots, and Leaves…
Form & Function (Revisited) • Parts of Speech = Form Classes • _________ • _________ • _________ • _________ • Form=Shape=Morphology≈Prototypically • Function = Behavior = Role in Sentence
What POS are These Words? The androokersplurkedgribblyalong beside the broofledlumphet. • Noun • Verb • Adjective • Adverb How do you know?
Nouns • Traditional Definition • Person, place, or thing • Linguistic Definition • Tangible item or intangible concept
Know a Noun when you see it... • Formal Clues • Has noun-making (derivational) morpheme • Takes noun inflection morphemes • _____ or ____ • Functional Clues • Appears after articles OR prepositions(may have Adj. before) • Replaceable by a pronoun in a tag question • Fits in the Subject position (test frame sentence)
Noun Test Frame Sentence (The) ________ seems all right. NOTE: You may need to change “all right” to “unacceptable”, “short”, or “slow” in some cases
Missing Nouns • Fill in the missing nouns… • Identify the (2) nouns that were not deleted… • Why do you suppose the cartoonist left these in?
Find a Noun… … in your G & C paper
Slots filled by Nominals • Subject • My wife is Chinese • Direct Object • I saw my wife this morning • Indirect Object • I gave flowers to my wife on her birthday • Object of a preposition • Most anytime the phone rings, it’s for Yuan • Subject complement • My wife’s name is Yuan • Object Complement • I consider Yuan my best friend
G&C Paper: Find Examples • Subject • Direct Object • Indirect Object • Object of a preposition • Subject Complement • Object Complement
To Comma or Not to Comma… • Never put a comma between the: • subject and verb • direct object and object complement • indirect object and direct object • verb and subject complement • verb and direct object • except in direct quotes like: He said,“I’ll never forget you.”
The little comma makes a big difference! I’ve finally decided to cheer up, everybody! I’ve finally decided to cheer up everybody! Eats, Shoots & Leaves (junior edition), Truss & Timmons, 2006
I’ve finally decided to cheer up everybody! Without the comma “everybody” is: • Subject • Direct object • Indirect object • Object complement
What’s a comma do? • Shows where to take a breath • Separates one idea from another • Separates equal grammatical elements • All of the above
Any Questions…. …before we go on?
Which is the most “prototypical” noun? • Potato • Refusing • Glamorous • Sheep
Degrees of Nounness F D B A C E G • Examples? • Nouns that name people, places & things ________ • Nouns derived from adjectives ________ • Nouns derived from verbs ________ • Adjectives that are also nouns ________ • Verbs that are also nouns ________ • Verbs in noun positions ________ • Prepositions used as nouns ________
Find a Non-Prototypical Noun… … in your G & C paper
Diagramming Nouns Aunt Blabby Your Nouns go on a flat line… Subjects @ front; Objects @ end
Did You Get It? Which are Functional Nouns? “Rude Miami drivers have earned the title of worst road rage.” • drivers, title, rage • Miami, title, road • Miami, road, rage • earned, worst • How do you know?
How do these sound? • We’re shopping for a new furniture • Our furnitures are getting shabby • My family’s healths are important to me • What’s the problem?
Noun Features Common Countable Non-countable (homework) Singular(person) Plural(people)
Words that: • Don’t fit in A-D ≠ Nouns • Fit only A & B = Non-count • Fit only B, C & D = Count Count vs. Non-count • Test Frame Sentences • He likes ______________. • The ________ is good • He wants a(n) _________. • __________ (e)s are good. Try these words, then some of your own: fun light desk home news chicken cash noise ask lamp amiss dessert
Did You Get It? Which cannot be a “count” noun? • Pizza • Sheep • Institution • Happiness
More Noun Features (FYI) Examples • Count & Non-count ________ • Common & Proper ________ • Animate & Inanimate ________ • Human & Nonhuman ________ • Male & female ________ • Why?? *The king put the crown on herself
Find the Error 1. Find the Error 2. Explain it 3. Fix it • The baby’s mother is a king.
Nominal Varieties • Appositives (extra information: use commas) • My wife, Yuan, loves to watch TV • Gerunds • Watching is boring for me • Infinitives • To watch is boring for me • Nominal Clauses • Why people watch so much TV is a mystery to me • Delayed Subjects • It is amazing what people will watch…
Appositive Error • The third image was Ernst Haeckel's, a German biologist, drawings of embryos. • What’s the problem with the sentence above? • How would you fix it?
Do We Have a Problem? • The boy showed his interest in American sports though he was unable to bring his baseball glove to the concentration camp, a sport that had not yet reached Japan. • Yes • No More to come…
The Problem is with: The boy showed his interest in American sports though he was unable to bring his baseball glove to the concentration camp, a sport that had not yet reached Japan. • An appositive • An infinitive • A delayed subject • Subject–verb agreement
Locate the Ambiguity… • The state of Florida has found and restored what it believes to be the • earliest film of Jim Morrison, shot in the early 60s when he attended • Florida State University, 34 years after his death. (AP Photo/Florida State • University via Florida State Archives)
To Be Sophisticated... • To lookat the definitions, the levels of response, and the tone of an apology will help evaluate when it is necessary to use these phrases. • What’s the subject of this sentence? • Try a tag question • Try the Noun Test Frame Sentence • Does the subject agree with the verb?
Why Do We Care? • Subject Verb Agreement • Comma Placement • Our writing reflects our intelligence(in the eyes of those who hold the $$)
What’s the Error? • Punctuation in the form of exclamation marks are also evident. • Strategy: • Subjects must agree with their Verbs • Subjects are never inside prepositional phases
Subject–Verb Agreement Find & Correct the Errors Which sentence is best? • Often a convention held in big public rooms feel very institutional. • Often, a convention held in big public rooms, feel very institutional. • Often a convention, held in big public rooms, feel very institutional. • Often a convention held in big public rooms feels very institutional.
Find & Correct the Errors “Subject – Verb Agreement” OR “Punctuation Problem” • This building and its décor shows that the outside has been brought inside. • Decorative touches, such as the etched front window, signals a trend in newly constructed meeting facilities. • Previously, centers for public gathering, was four walls and a roof.
Any Questions… …before we move on?
Verbs • Traditional Definition • Action & ‘State of Being’ words • Linguistic Definition • Convey action or state of being AND • Carry grammatical information about • tense (pres, past, etc) • person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) • Other… (to be discussed in later chapters)
Know a Verb when you see it... • Formal Clues • Has verb-making morpheme • Can take tense-related morphemes • Functional Clues • Can be made into a command • Can be made negative • Can fit a Verb Frame Sentence
Verb Frame Sentences • They must ___________ (it). • They must ___________ good. (well)
3 • 4 • 5 • 6 How many verbs?
Diagramming Verbs (you) Play ball Verbs go on a flat line after the subject…
Functional Shift: Revisited • Noun, Verb, Both or Neither: Why? • Rock • Sob • Pluralize Exercise 4.6
Why should we care? • Learning is as unique as the individual who is attempting to do so, and any “principles” for second language acquisition must be regarded as tentative suggestions, not absolute rules. • Is this acceptable? A = Yes B = No • Why or Why Not?
Key errors to watch for: • Sentence Fragments • Comma splices • Run-on (fused) sentences