Understand: the anatomy of the foot, ankle, & lower leg. Principles of rehabilitation for the foot, ankle, & lower leg Preventive/supportive techniques for lower extremity Identify: Components of an evaluation format Recognize: Common injuries Foot Supports 3 times the body weight.
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the anatomy of the foot, ankle, & lower leg.
Principles of rehabilitation for the foot, ankle, & lower leg
Preventive/supportive techniques for lower extremity
Components of an evaluation format
Foot Supports 3 times the body weight.
Foot contains ¼ of the total number (24 bones and 38 joints)
Ligaments- named for the bones they connect.
Tendon: Most important for ankle support
Achilles Tendon -attach the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (calf muscles) to the calcaneus.
Muscles:Peroneus Brevis & Peroneus Longus-
run along the lateral side of the leg and foot.
- helps to prevent sprains.
-bones: Tibia, Fibula, & Talus
-hinge joint-flexion (dorsiflexion) and extension (plantarflexion.)
-bones: Talus & Calcaneus
-triplanar-movement around the oblique axis.
-most stable when in dorsiflexion
balance, movement, support, and shock absorption
-neurological (motor and sensory)
-circulation (pulse & capillary refill)
-anatomical structures (palpate)
-fracture test (palpation, compression, and distraction)
-Test for bony integrity:
1. Heel Tap test: integrity of tibia, fibula and talus
2. Squeeze Test: bony integrity of tibia and fibula
-Tests for ligamentous stability:
1. anterior drawer test: anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments
2. Inversion or lateral stress test (talar tilt): calcaneofibular and anterior talofibular ligaments
3. Eversion or medial stress test (talar tilt): deltoid ligament
4. external rotation test (kleiger test): anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments and interosseous membrane
-Tests for Muscle Function & Flexibility:
1. Thompson test: achilles tendon
2. Gastrocnemius Tightness test: degree of tightness in the ankle due to inflexibility
3. Soleus Tightness test: degree of tightness in the ankle due to inflexibility.
-80% of ankle sprains are inversion and plantar flexion.
-Ligament most injured is anterior talofibular
-Eversion sprain less common-deltoid ligament (thick)
1. First degree sprain -one or more ligaments are STRETCHED.
2. Second degree sprain -portion of one or more ligaments is torn.
3. Third degree sprain -one or more ligaments have been completely torn.
-causes: overuse, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, or sudden movement.
-causes: lack of exercise, severe exercise or too long, change in bone structure.
-signs: specific point tenderness, increased pain during exercise, hurt when athlete presses fingers just above and below site of most pain.
-Later stages: pain is constant, especially at night.
-cause: unknown, several factors seem to contribute: Fatigue, fractures, dehydration, lack of electrolytes, poor flexibility, previous injury, improper fitted equipment.