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PROGRESS REPORT: FOOD SAFETY. Dr Andrew Wadge Director of Food Safety. Public Health Impact. In 2006 between 500 and 600 people died as a direct result of something they ate – mostly due to food poisoning. Economic Impact - Costs. Economic Impact - Savings.

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progress report food safety

PROGRESS REPORT: FOOD SAFETY

Dr Andrew Wadge

Director of Food Safety

public health impact
Public Health Impact
  • In 2006 between 500 and 600 people died as a direct result of something they ate – mostly due to food poisoning
geographical differences in major pathogens within uk
Geographical Differences in Major Pathogens within UK

Rates of cases (per 1,000,000 of population) - 2005

Statistically significant difference between countries indicated by differing colours

Source: HPA & HPS data analysed in work for FBD risk matrix (FSA)

within year trends for cases of campylobacter england wales
Within-year trends for cases of Campylobacter: England & Wales –

data from 1992-2006

Source:

HPA

late spring increase in campylobacter
Late-spring increase in Campylobacter
  • Sharp increase in cases ~mid-May, peak in June
  • Not caused solely by increasing temperature
  • Possible reasons:
    • Bird-pecked milk†
    • Barbequed food†
    • Flies hatching

†Supporting evidence in: Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme 2000-2003.

birthdays increase your risk of campylobacter

Weeks either side

of birthday

~ constant rest of year

Birthdays increase your risk of Campylobacter!

~25% higher instance of Campylobacter around birthday (± 1 week )

Source: Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme 2000-3

carcass and meat pathogen levels
Carcass and Meat Pathogen Levels

Salmonella

  • Carcasses samples testing +ve (1999 → 2003): Cattle↑ Sheep↑Pig→
  • Level in retail chickens ?
  • Level in UK Eggs ↓ (1995/6 → 2003)

Campylobacter

  • Carcasses samples testing +ve (1999 → 2003): Cattle↑ Sheep↑Pig↓
  • Level in retail chickens ?

Pathogen levels in the Slaughterhouse

  • On carcasses (2002 → 2005): Cattle↓ Sheep↓ Pig↓
  • On environmental surfaces ↓ (2002 → 2005)
estimated impact by food group of indigenous food borne disease top 7 foods 1996 2000
Estimated impact by food group of indigenous food borne disease – top 7 foods (1996 – 2000)

†Complex foods: dishes consisting of ingredients of various food types in which the precise source of infection was not verified. They tend to contain chicken or eggs and consequently follow a similar pattern to these food types.

Source: Adak et al. (2005): Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (3), 365-372.

summary life style choices
Summary – Life Style Choices

Conclusion: In general, lifestyle choices have a higher risk of food borne disease associated with them (over the time period of the Food borne Disease Strategy)

impact of interventions
Impact of Interventions

Progress -

19.2% cut in food-borne diseases 2000-05

  • 1.5 million cases
  • 38,000 hospital bed days
  • £750m to society as a whole

How -

Reduce contamination of meat and eggs in the food supply chain

  • on-farm
  • in slaughterhouses
  • in retail and distribution
  • in the home:

Action taken by industry has reduced the level of Salmonella contamination of chicken from 37% in 1993/94 to less than 6% in 2001;

An estimated 70% of chickens sold are contaminated with Campylobacter

historical future drivers
Historical & Future Drivers
  • Changing Population:
    • People living longer
    • Immigration
  • Personal Affluence:
    • Alters diet
    • Warmer houses in winter, cooler in summer
  • Travel
    • Overseas
    • To the supermarket – bringing home frozen foods
  • Lifestyle
    • Time available for preparation
    • Choices

Source: Institute of Grocery Distribution

historical future drivers15
Historical & Future Drivers
  • Globalisation
    • International sourcing of foods
    • Large-scale operations
    • Consolidation and centralisation of food production
    • Increased automation of food production
  • Product formulation
    • Changes in levels of preservatives, etc.
    • Drive to reduce salt (FSA)
  • EU Hygiene Legislation

Source: Institute of Grocery Distribution

potential future drivers
Potential Future Drivers
  • Technology:
    • Genetic modification
    • Sensors ensure correct storage/ heating
    • New packing materials
    • Household stock management: use of Artificial Intelligence
    • Cooking instructions fed into microwave directly
  • Sustainability
    • drive to reduce waste => thinner packaging materials
    • drive to use left-overs, use up all food

Source: Institute of Grocery Distribution

climate change
Climate Change
  • ~2.5-3ºC increase in UK mean temperature by 2100
  • Increased temperature could lead to:
    • more rapid multiplication of micro-organisms throughout the food chain
    • change in diet
    • more barbecues
  • Regression analysis indicates a 1ºC temp. rise would increase:
    • all food borne disease by ~5% (Bentham, 1997)
    • Salmonella in the UK by ~12% (Kovats et al., 2004)
  • More extreme weather events

Source: Health Effects of Climate Change in the UK (2007)

Dept. Health and HPA