Grace Murray Hopper Pioneer Computer Scientist
Where it all began… • She was born Grace Brewster Murrayon December 9th, 1906 in New York City. • Father Walter was an insurance broker. • Mother Mary Van Horne had a love of math. • Both parents felt that girls should be educated just the same as boys. This, I believe, is what helped direct Grace’s life. • Grace attended private schools and planned on attended Vassar in 1923…
…Continued …however she failed a required Latin Exam and had to wait another year. • In 1928, Grace graduated Phi Beta Kappa • While teaching at Vassar, Hopper continued her studies in Mathematics at Yale University where she earned an Masters Degree and a Ph.D. • Grace married Vincent Foster Hopper in 1930. Having no children, they were divorced in 1945 and he was killed in WWII that same year.
…Continued • Grace wanted to join the military as WWII began. She was 34 at the time and did not weigh nearly enough to enlist. But in 1943, she persuaded the Naval Reserve to accept her. • After being name lieutenant, she was assigned to work at Cruft Laboratory. Grace encountered the Mark I computer. Her love of math came out as she could hardly wait to disassemble it and figure it out. Hopper became the third person to program the Mark I. • By the end of the war, Hopper was working on the Harvard Mark II and Mark III computers. The Mark II was the machine that the first actual "computer bug" was found: a moth which shorted one of the 17, 000 relays in the machine.
Continue • Grace invented the first program compiler called theA-O. which translated symbolic mathematical code into machine code. • In 1986, Hopper retired from the Navy. • Grace Hopper died in her sleep on New Years day in 1992. She was laid to rest with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.
Major Accomplishments • Mark I,Mark II, Mark III • UNIVAC I, the first large-scale electronic digital computer • The A-O Compiler • The B-O Compiler (AKA the FLOW-MATIC) • In 1969, Grace Received the first ever Computer Science Man-of-the-Year award from the Data Processing Management Association. • In 1971, the Sperry Corporation initiated an annual award in Grace Hopper’s name to honor young computer professionals for their significant contributions to computer science. • In 1973, Grace became the first person from the United States and the first woman of any nationality to be made a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society. • Grace felt that her greatest contribution was all the young people she trained.
Long-term significance of the her accomplishments • Grace Murray Hopper was a role-model and inspiration to women and scientist’s everywhere. • I believe our computers and software would not be as it is today without the hard work of Hopper. • Her early recognition of the potential for commercial applications of computers, and her leadership and perseverance in making this vision a reality, paved the way for modern data processing.
The relevance of Grace Hopper to education. • Past: Her past relevance was the simple fact that Hopper was in the military and had to work hard to gain the status that other’s would learn from her and she taught others how to program the Mark computers. She said her favorite part of life was being a teacher. • Present: Today, we have amazing, wonderful women who work with technology everyday. I believe Hopper paved the road for this to be possible. • Future: Everyday, scientists are working to better our technology and this includes classroom technology. Hopper’s work in the military and in general will show throughout history.
I still have some questions… • I would like to know how hard it was for Grace Hopper to gain the trust and respect of her male colleagues in the male dominated world of science and technology. I could just imagine what kind of person she was to have done the things she did in a time where women usually did not accomplish the things she did. • How she got the idea to check the Mark computer for the shortage and found the “bug” ? Also, I wonder if she knew that the tem “bug” would still be used today for the same reason. • I would like to know what made her want to join the navy and why she kept pressing on when they told her no.
Bibliography • Danis, Sharron Ann. “Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper”. 16 Feb. 1997 <http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Hopper.Danis.html>. • Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing. “Grace Murray Hopper” 1994. <http://cs-www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/hopper-story.html>. • O’Connor, J.J. “Grace Brewster Murray Hopper”. July 1999. <http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hopper.html>. • http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/ceremonies/military_funerals.html • http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.html • http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Bug.GIF • http://en.wikipedia.org
Glossary I • A-O Compiler: Translated symbolic mathematical code into machine code. • Cruft Laboratory:Harvard University Cruft Laboratory was the Harvard Physics Department's radar lab during World War II. • Full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery:In addition to the standard military honors, those eligible for full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery may also receive: An escort platoon (size varies according to the rank of the deceased) , A military band, burial flags are provided by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs at no cost. Most veterans are entitled to burial flags. Additionally, those eligible for full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery may use the caisson, if available. Officers in the rank of colonel and above in the Army and the Marine Corps may be provided a caparisoned (rider less) horse, if available. General officers may receive a cannon salute (17 guns for a four-star general, 15 for a three-star, 13 for a two-star, 11 for a one-star), if available. Each service has variations to these funeral honors
Glossary II • Mark I: Controlled by pre-punched paper tape, could carry out addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and reference to previous results. It had special subroutines for logarithms and trigonometric functions and used 23 decimal place numbers. Data was stored and counted mechanically using 3000 decimal storage wheels, 1400 rotary dial switches, and 500 miles of wire. Its electromagnetic relays classified the machine as a relay computer. All output was displayed on an electric typewriter. The Mark I would be extremely slow as it 3-5 seconds for a multiplication operation. • Mark II: An electromechanical computer built at Harvard University. The Mark II was constructed with high-speed electromagnetic relays instead of electro-mechanical counters used in the Mark I, making it much faster than its predecessor. A unique feature of the Mark II is that it had built-in hardware for several functions such as the reciprocal, square root, logarithm, exponential, and some trigonometric functions. These took between five and twelve seconds to execute.
Glossary III • Mark III: The Harvard Mark III, also known as ADEC (for Aiken Dahlgren Electronic Calculator) was an early computer that was partially electronic and partially electromechanical. The Mark III's word consisted of thirty-six bits, storing sixteen decimal digits, plus a sign. It used 5,000 vacuum tubes and 1,500 crystal diodes. It used magnetic drum memory of 4,350 words. Its addition time was 4,400 microseconds and the multiplication time was 13,200 microseconds (times include memory access time). Aiken boasted that the Mark III was the fastest electronic computer in the world. Finished just before 1950. • Naval Reserve: The United States Navy Reserve (USNR), until 2005 known as the United States Naval Reserve, is the reserve component of the United States Navy. Members of the USNR, called reservists, are enrolled in the Ready Reserve, Standby Reserve, or Retired Reserve program. Reservists are called into active duty, or mobilized, as needed and are required to sign paperwork acknowledging this possibility upon enrollment in the reserve program. The Navy Reserve consists of approximately 80,000 officers and enlisted personnel who serve in every state and territory as well as overseas.
Glossary IV • Phi Beta Kappa:is an academic honor society with the mission of "fostering and recognizing excellence" in the undergraduate liberal arts and sciences.Founded at the College of William and Mary on December 5, 1776, as the first college fraternity, it is now the oldest,and considered the most prestigious, liberal arts and sciences honor society in the United States. Phi Beta Kappa is also the first collegiate organization to adopt a Greek-letter name. Today there are 276 chapters and over half a million living. • UNIVAC I:The UNIVAC I (UNIVersalAutomatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States. In the years before successor models of the UNIVAC I appeared, the machine was simply known as "the UNIVAC". • Vassar College: A private, highly selective, coeducational, liberal arts college in Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded as a women's college in 1861, it became coeducational in 1969. It is ranked #11 among liberal arts colleges by U.S. News & World Report.