Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War
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Unit 13: Part 2 Japan, Pearl Harbor and War

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  1. Unit 13: Part 2Japan, Pearl Harbor and War Section 1

  2. Japans ambitions in the Pacific“Co-Prosperity Sphere of Influence” • With the fall of France and Britain under siege, colonies in Pacific are unprotected. • July, 1941: Japan takes over French bases in Indochina (today Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)… threatens move on Dutch East Indies • need oil, rubber, tin

  3. U.S Reaction to Japanese Aggression • FDR freezes Japanese assets in the U.S. • Places embargo on sales of scrap steel and aviation fuel to Japan

  4. U.S. breaks Japanese secret communications code • Learns that Japan is preparing for a strike - Did not know from where attack would occur • Peace talks fail - Dec. 6th: Japan rejects U.S Sec. Of State Cordell Hull’s proposal to release Japanese assets in return for Japan’s withdrawal from China and French Indochina…

  5. Japan Attacks the United States

  6. Pearl Harbor: Home of the U.S. Pacific Fleet

  7. Japanese planes prepare to take off for the Pearl Harbor attack

  8. Torpedo exploding into USS West Virginia, as seen from Japanese plane

  9. USS Utah took a torpedo hit and capsized early in the battle The wreck remains at Pearl Harbor

  10. U.S.S. Arizona

  11. “A date that live in infamy…” http://www.historyofwar.org/Pictures/PearlHarbor04.jpg

  12. American casualties: 2403 killed, 1,178 wounded • 21 ships; 300 aircraft damaged or destroyed

  13. US Enters the War December 8, 1941 US declares war on Japan December 11, 1941 Germany declares war on the United States FDR http://dase.laits.utexas.edu/media/american_politics_collection/viewitem/000117156_400.jpg

  14. Americans join war effort Demand for GI’s • 5 million volunteered • 10 million drafted • Labor shortage at home • 6 million women join labor force • 2 million minorities hired

  15. American Industry responds • Automobile plants were converted to build tanks, armored vehicles, etc. • Factories across nation convert to war production • Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser • Liberty ships, tankers, carriers

  16. The American Homefront The United States government stirs patriotic feelings Movies are used to build morale Propaganda is used to keep war effort going: Bugs Bunny Racist Propaganda People rationed goods/supplies and started Victory Gardens http://www.ethicurean.com/wp-content/uploads/image/plant-victory-garden.jpg

  17. Continued War Effort http://z.about.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/R/O/propaganda_quiet.jpg http://www.teacheroz.com/images/homes.gif

  18. http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/1940sphotos/posters/ridewithhitler.jpghttp://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/1940sphotos/posters/ridewithhitler.jpg http://www.usmm.org/p/looselips.jpg

  19. Women Enter the Workforce http://www.rosietheriveterphotos.com/images/070705172615_Woman_Working_a_War_Job_LG.jpg http://www.edupics.com/en-coloring-pictures-pages-photo-rosie-the-riveter-p7219.jpg

  20. Japanese Americans Interned Japanese-Americans (Nisei) Thousands of Nisei were forced into internment camps in the West & Southwest

  21. http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/imagefolder/japaneseinternment.jpghttp://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/imagefolder/japaneseinternment.jpg

  22. Internment Camp Poston, AZ

  23. http://education.eastwestcenter.org/asiapacificed/ph2006/PH2006projects/7_clip_image001.jpghttp://education.eastwestcenter.org/asiapacificed/ph2006/PH2006projects/7_clip_image001.jpg

  24. End of Sec. 1 Notes • HW: read Sec 1 of Required Reading and do the worksheet…. • You can find both of these docs on my Web page

  25. With the U.S. now at war: • We’ll divide our study of the war into 2 geographic areas: Section 2 • The Eastern Theater of Operations (the ETO)…Europe and No. Africa Section 3 • The Pacific Theater of Operations (the PTO)

  26. The Nazis had broken their pact w/USSR:Operation Barbarossa (June 1941)

  27. By 1942 : War not going well for the Allies: • Germany controlled all of Europe and N. Africa and were deep into Russia

  28. Gloomy Prospects for the Allies The chain of spectacular victories disguised fatal weaknesses within the Axis alliance: Japan and Germany fought separate wars, they never coordinated strategies. The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths: The manpower of the Soviet Union and the productive capacity of the United States.

  29. Turning Points of the War: The Battle of Stalingrad The Pivotal battle in the war in Europe Enemy at the Gates The German Army (“Wehrmacht”) had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front. In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was defeated and captured at the Battle of Stalingrad. After losing a massive tank battle at Kursk, the Germans began a long retreat home… The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.

  30. Stalingrad House by house… Brick by brick

  31. North Africa: El Alamein In 1942 German forces tried to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal American invasion: “Operation Torch” Yanks and Brits drove Germans out Turning point in N. Africa: El Alamein

  32. Defeat of Italy (1943) Invasion of Sicily opened door for invasion of Italy Allies fought their way north up the “boot” Mussolini forced to flee… captured , executed, and hung by his heels by anti-Mussolini Italians

  33. Sec. 3

  34. The Doolittle Raid (April 1942) • Col. Jimmy Doolittle (related to me!) put together mission to bomb Tokyo & other targets IN Japan • Bombers taking off a carrier? • Military value? Not much • Psychological value? HUGE morale boost for American public • Movie Trailer: Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo

  35. The Pacific Theater: Early Battles American Forces halted the Japanese advance in two decisive naval battles. Coral Sea (May 1942) U.S. stopped a fleet carrying Japanese troops to New Guinea Japanese designs on Australia ended Midway (June 1942) Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers

  36. U.S. strategy to defeat Japan: “Island-hopping” • No need to capture EVERY island… “hop” over some, leaving Japanese troops isolated • 1 island chain after another

  37. Allied Island – Hopping (1942-45)

  38. U.S. Marines assault an island

  39. Europe: Operation Overlord Stalin had pressed FDR and Churchill for over a year to open a 2nd front against the Nazis…a cross-Channel invasion All logistics in place for the invasion of Normandy, France in June, 1944

  40. June 6, 1944: D - Day Combined American, British, Canadian assault Dwight D. Eisenhower: Supreme Allied Commander

  41. Invasion of Europe (con.t) • Allies cont. drive into France…by Aug., 1944: liberation of Paris

  42. The Allies Advance • Into Holland: “Operation Market Garden” • Into Belgium: • Nazis mount major counter-offensive • Battle of the Bulge

  43. Germany’s Defeat Americans advanced into Germany from the west while the Russians closed in on Berlin from the east American and Russian soldiers meet at the Elbe River

  44. Berlin 1945

  45. Hitler’s Last Days In the underground bunker: committed suicide with companion Eva Braun With Berlin in ruins, the Nazis surrendered May, 1945 Victory in Europe at last

  46. Time Magazine cover - 1945

  47. Allies learn of the Holocaust: A Nazi Labor Camp Somewhere in Germany From: Band of Brothers (HBO, 2001)

  48. Sec. 4 The Politics of War

  49. The Wartime Conferences • The Allied Leaders met several times during the War to discuss goals and to map strategy :